Howard J. Swatland

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   Ph.D. research showed 80% of muscle fibers of pigs are produced very rapidly towards the end of gestation without passing through a classical myotube stage of development. Although contentious at the time (1971), the research reconfirmed the forgotten classical work of Theodore Schwann showing the dual origin of multinucleate muscle fibers in pigs, either from myotubes with axial nuclei or from other products of myoblast fusion never developing axial nuclei. This is no longer disputed and has been confirmed in numerous other mammals. Postdoctoral research led to the first quantitative proof of bovine double-muscling being caused by muscle fiber hyperplasia early in embryonic development in post-otic somites (i.e., the extraocular muscles are not hyperplastic). Motor neurons were found to adjust to the supernumerary muscle fibers by increasing the amount of axonal branching. Neuromuscular spindles were also found to be affected and to encompass more intrafusal fibers than normal. 

   Research on pre- and postnatal muscle development was continued for 20 years in a variety of other meat animals and led to the discovery of the involvement in muscle growth of the tapered ends of intrafascicularly terminating muscle fibers. This work has been confirmed by numerous biomedical researchers, but is generally ignored by meat scientists because it undermines many published histological studies of muscle growth in meat animals, as well as invalidating many studies of histochemical fiber type ratios. Intrafascicularly terminating fibers allow the longitudinal growth of muscle fibers, leading to changes in the apparent number of muscle fibers at the midlength of many large muscles in meat animals. This growth mechanism is important towards the end of the commercial growth period for cattle and pigs. To investigate intrafascicularly terminating fibers, a silver staining method was developed for frozen sections (1974). It showed many large-diameter fibers in routine histochemical sections having tapered endings on their surfaces. The method was also applied to rheological studies of meat toughness, showing how muscle fibers fail by tensile strength and how connective tissue orientation is affected by muscle length.

   Histochemical research published in 1977 was among the first to prove ratios of histochemical fiber types may change during growth. This prompted studies in quantitative histochemistry (defining fiber types objectively by microscope photometry rather than subjectively) and led to the discovery of differential rates of postmortem glycogenolysis in different histochemical fiber types, to the identification of transitional histochemical fiber types, and to the measurement of centripetal gradients of mitochondrial activity within fibers.Among the practical implications of this work was the 1974 discovery of postmortem electrical stimulation in beef being mediated via the peripheral nervous system.

   This latter finding prompted studies on the involvement of the nervous system in postmortem muscle metabolism. A number of discoveries were made using electromyography, electrocardiography, electrocorticography, and electroencephalography: (1) neural stimulation was confirmed as a cause of PSE in otherwise normal pigs, (2) exsanguination was found to be independent of cardiac activity after stunning, and the first measurements were made of (3) intracranial stunning currents and (4) postmortem reflex activity in pigs.

   Exploring the relationships between muscle growth and meat quality prompted a search for new and rapid ways to measure meat quality.In 1979, the relationship between pork quality and the electrical capacitance of muscle fiber membranes was discovered. Using a combination of NMR, computer-operated rigorometers and biochemical assays it was discovered ATP levels (rather than pH) are the primary determinant of membrane capacitance. New methods of fiber-optic spectrophotometry, goniophotometry, and fluorometry were developed to measure fluid distribution, light scattering, and collagen and triglyceride content in meat. A fiber optic method for infrared analysis of meat was developed in 1983, followed by UV fluorometry in 1987, and polarized light in 1988. Several of these techniques were adapted as sensors for the on-line measurement of meat quality and confirmed using electron microscopy and centrifugation for measuring myofilament separation and fluid distribution in pork. Low-angle x-ray diffraction was first used to measure myofilament spacing in pork in 1988. Robots were used for on-line evaluation of meat in 1998.

   In 1989 it was discovered changes in myofibrillar refractive index contribute to the well known effect of pH on meat paleness. This research is still in progress. The goal is a complete understanding of meat paleness involving reflectance at refractive index boundaries plus microstructural scattering along refractive pathways. Ways have been found for the on-line measurement of fat content and carotene pigments, for myoglobin, for fluid distribution, for collagen abundance and cross-linking, and for elastin. The unsolved problem at present is how to measure sarcomere length in bulk meat. This is currently being investigated using a penetrometer probe tipped with optical fibers to measure meat toughness simultaneously with optical properties.



· 1. Swatland, H.J. 1984. Structure and Development of Meat Animals. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.  Translated as a Estructura y desarrollo de los animales de abasto by D.P.D. Maluenda, Editorial Acribia,   Zaragoza, 1991. 

· 2. Swatland, H.J. 1994. Structure and Development of Meat Animals and Poultry.  Technomic Publishing, Philadelphia. 

· 3. Swatland, H.J. 1995. On-line Evaluation of Meat . Technomic Publishing, Philadelphia. 

· 4. Swatland, H.J. 1998. Computer Operation for Microscope Photometry. CRC Press, Florida. 

· 5. Swatland, H.J. 2000. Meat Cuts and Muscle Foods. Nottingham University Press, England. 

· 6. Swatland, H.J. 2004. Meat Cuts and Muscle Foods. Second Edition. Nottingham University Press, England. 




1. Swatland, H.J. 1989. Physiology of muscle growth. Recent Advances in Turkey Science (C. Nixey & T.C. Grey, editors).Butterworths, London. 1989.pp. 167-182.

2. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Growth physiology and post-mortem metabolism in porcine muscle.In E. Puolanne, D.I. Demeyer, S. Ellis and M. Ruusunen (editors) Pork Quality: Genetic and Metabolic Factors. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, Reading, UK. 

3. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Paleness, softness and exudation in pork. In E. Puolanne, D.I. Demeyer, S. Ellis and M. Ruusunen (editors) Pork Quality: Genetic and Metabolic Factors. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, Reading, UK.

4. Swatland, H.J. 1995.Electronic assessment of muscle quality. In Quality and Grading of Carcasses of Meat Animals, S.D. Morgan Jones (Editor). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 109-130.

5. Swatland, H.J. 1995.Physiology of growth and development.In: Poultry Production (P. Hunton, editor).World Animal Science (A. Niemann-Sørensen and D.E. Tribe, editors), Vol. C9, pp. 23-51. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

6. Swatland, H.J. 1998.Probes and robots for on-line evaluation of pork.In Progress in Pig Science, (J. Wiseman, M.A. Varley and J.P. Chadwick, Editors). Nottingham University Press. pp. 471-490.

7. Swatland, H.J. 1999. On-line assessment of poultry meat quality. In Poultry Meat Science. R.I. Richardson and G.C. Mead. Poultry Science Symposium Series, Volume 25. pp. 315-345. CABI International, Wallingford, Oxford.

8. Swatland, H.J. 2000. Computer-assisted microphotometry.In Methods in Plant Electron Microscopy and Cytochemistry, W.V. Dashek (Editor), Chapter 9, pp. 1-26. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.

9. Swatland, H.J. 2003.Optical polarimetry of postmortem metabolism in meat. In Food Science and Product Technology, T. Nakano and L. Ozimek (Eds), Research Signpost, Trivandrum, India. pp. 65-75.

10. Swatland, H.J. 2003. On-line monitoring of meat quality. In, Meat Processing. Improving Quality, J. Kerry, J. Kerry and D. Ledward (Eds), Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, England. pp.193-216.

11. Swatland, H.J. 2004. Muscle growth. In: W.K. Jensen, C. Devine and M. Dikeman (eds), Encylopedia of Meat Science, pp. 525-530. Elsevier, Oxford.




Animal Production, 1

Aquaculture Research, 1

Archiv für Tierzucht, 4

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 1

British Poultry Science, 1

Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 9

Canadian Journal of Zoology, 2

Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 6

Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, 2

Experientia, 1

Food Microstructure, 3

Food Quality and Preference, 1

Food Research International, 46

Growth, 6

Histochemical Journal, 12

International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3

Journal of Agricultural Science, 4

Journal of Anatomy, 1

Journal of Animal Science, 44

Journal of Comparative Pathology, 1

Journal of Computer Assisted Microscopy, 13

Journal of Food Science, 8

Journal of Muscle Foods, 3

Journal of Texture Studies, 3

Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 1

Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2

Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technolgie, 2

Meat Science, 14

Mikroskopie, 3

Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi, 1

Poultry Science, 5

Research in Veterinary Science, 3

South African Journal of Animal Science, 1

Stain Technology, 1

Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 1

Trends in Food Science and Technology, 1

Veterinary Bulletin, 1

Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, 6


1. Swatland, H.J. and Cassens, R.G. 1971.Innervation of porcine and bovine muscle.Journal of Animal Science 33:750-758. 

2. Swatland, H.J. and Cassens, R.G. 1972.A brief study of muscle enlargement in the rat.Journal of Animal Science 34:21-24. 

3. Swatland, H.J. and Cassens, R.G. 1972.Peripheral innervation of muscle from stress-susceptible pigs.Journal of Comparative Pathology 82:229-236. 

4. Swatland, H.J. and Cassens, R.G. 1972.Muscle growth: the problem of fibers with an intrafascicular termination.Journal of Animal Science 35:336-344. 

5. Swatland, H.J. 1973.Innervation of genetically enlarged muscles from double-muscled cattle.Journal of Animal Science 36:355-362. 

6. Swatland, H.J. and Cassens, R.G. 1973.Prenatal development, histochemistry and innervation of porcine muscle.Journal of Animal Science 36:343-354. 

7. Swatland, H.J. and Cassens, R.G. 1973.Inhibition of muscle growth in foetal sheep.Journal of Agricultural Science 80:503-509. 

8. Swatland, H.J. 1973.Muscle growth in the fetal and neonatal pig. Journal of Animal Science 37:536-545. 

9. Swatland, H.J. 1974.Developmental disorders of skeletal muscle in cattle, pigs and sheep.Veterinary Bulletin 44:179-202. 

10. Swatland, H.J. and Cassens, R.G. 1974.Observations on the postmortem histochemistry of myofibers from stress-susceptible pigs. Journal of Animal Science 37:885-891. 

11. Swatland, H.J. and Cassens, R.G. 1974.The role of the innervation in muscle development and function.Journal of Animal Science 38:1092-1102. 

12. Swatland, H.J. and Kieffer, N.M. 1974.Fetal development of the double-muscled condition in cattle.Journal of Animal Science 38:752-757. 

13. Swatland, H.J. 1974.Fetal and neonatal development of spindle capsules and intrafusal myofibers in the porcine sartorius. Journal of Animal Science 39:42-46. 

14. Swatland, H.J. 1975.Histochemical development of myofibers in neonatal piglets.Research in Veterinary Science 18:253-257. 

15. Swatland, H.J. 1975.Growth of motor end plates and histochemistry of intrafusal myofibers in neonatal piglets.Research in Veterinary Science 18:258-262. 

16. Swatland, H.J. 1975.Morphology and development of endomysial connective tissue in porcine and bovine muscle.Journal of Animal Science 41:78-86. 

17. Swatland, H.J. 1975. Survival time of intact neuromuscular pathways in slaughtered pigs.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 8:122-23. 

18. Swatland, H.J. 1975.Relationships between mitochondrial content of muscle fibres and patterns of glycogen depletion postmortem. Histochemical Journal 7:367-374. 

19. Swatland, H.J. 1975.Relationships between mitochondrial content and glycogen distribution in porcine muscle fibres.Histochemical Journal 7:459-469. 

20. Swatland, H.J. 1975.Effect of fascicular arrangement on the apparent number of myofibers in the porcine longissimus muscle.Journal of Animal Science 41:794-798. 

21. Swatland, H.J. 1975.Myofibre number and myofibrillar development in neonatal pigs.Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, Series A. 22:756-763. 

22. Swatland, H.J. 1976.Longitudinal fascicular growth in the porcine longissimus muscle. Journal of Animal Science 42:63-66. 

23. Stanley, D.W. and Swatland, H.J. 1976.The microstructure of muscle tissue - a basis for meat texture measurement.Journal of Texture Studies 7:65-75. 

24. Swatland, H.J. 1976.Proliferation of myofibrils in the porcine longissimus muscle.Journal of Animal Science 42:1434-1439. 

25. Swatland, H.J. 1976.Electromyography of electrically stunned pigs and excised bovine muscle.Journal of Animal Science 42:838-844. 

26. Swatland, H.J. 1976.Cellular patterns of postmortem glycogenolysis in longissimus dorsi muscles of pigs at different live weights. Histochemical Journal 8:455-461. 

27. Swatland, H.J. 1976.An electrocorticographic study of necrobiosis in the brains of electrically stunned and exsanguinated pigs. Journal of Animal Science 43:577-582. 

28. Swatland, H.J. 1977.Histochemical changes during muscle growth in pigs.Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, Series A. 24:248-251. 

29. Swatland, H.J. 1976.Effect of growth and plane of nutrition on apparent muscle fiber numbers in the pig.Growth 40:285-292. 

30. Swatland, H.J. 1976.Motor unit activity in excised prerigor beef muscle.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 9:177-181. 

31. Swatland, H.J. 1977.Cytophotometry of postmortem glycogenolysis in different histochemical types of muscle fibres of the pig. Histochemical Journal 9:163-170. 

32. Swatland, H.J. 1977.The accumulation of myofiber nuclei in pigs with normal and arrested development.Journal of Animal Science 44:759-764. 

33. Swatland, H.J. 1977.Transitional stages in the histochemical development of muscle fibres during postnatal growth. Histochemical Journal 9:751-757. 

34. Swatland, H.J. 1977. Sensitivity of prerigor beef muscle to electrical stimulation.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 10:280-283. 

35. Swatland, H.J. 1978.Longitudinal growth and rate of new sarcomere formation in porcine muscle.Journal of Animal Science 46:118-124. 

36. Swatland, H.J. 1978.Glycogen phosphorylase and branching enzyme activity in red and white myofibers of bovine sternomandibularis muscle.Journal of Animal Science 46:113-117. 

37. Swatland, H.J. 1978.Comparison of red and white muscles by cytophotometry of their muscle fibre populations.Histochemical Journal 10:349-360. 

38. Swatland, H.J. 1978.A note on the physiological development of a red muscle from the ham region of the pork carcass. Animal Production 27:229-231. 

39. Swatland, H.J. 1978. Acid phosphatase activity of intramuscular mast cells from cattle and sheep.Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, Series A. 25:556-61. 

40. Swatland, H.J. 1978.Microstructure of cuts through the connective tissue framework of meat.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 11:204-208. 

41. Swatland, H.J. 1978. Histochemical distribution of cytochromes in pork.Canadian Journal of Animal Science 58:427-434. 

42. Swatland, H.J. 1979.Differential growth in the sartorius muscles of male and female turkeys.Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, Series A. 26:159-164. 

43. Swatland, H.J. 1979.Allometric radial growth in muscle, comparing fibres with strong and with weak adenosine triphosphatase activity. Journal of Anatomy 129:591-596. 

44. Swatland, H.J. 1979.Low-temperature activation of postmortem glycogenolysis in bovine skeletal muscle fibres.Histochemical Journal 11:391-399. 

45. Swatland, H.J. 1979.Development of shape in turkey carcasses. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 93:1-6. 

46. Swatland, H.J. 1979.Differential growth of the supracoracoideus muscles of male and female turkeys.Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, Series C. 8:227-232. 

47. Mullen, K. and Swatland, H.J. 1979.Linear skeletal growth in male and female turkeys.Growth 43:151-159. 

48. Swatland, H.J. and Mullen, K. 1979.A problem in the photometric cluster analysis of muscle fibre histochemistry.Histochemical Journal 11:740-744. 

49. Swatland, H.J. 1980.Cytophotometry of postmortem glycogenolysis in quiescent bovine muscle fibres in relation to temperature, succinate dehydrogenase activity and adenosine triphosphatase activity. Histochemical Journal 12:39-47. 

50. Swatland, H.J. 1980.Anisotropy and postmortem changes in the electrical resistivity and capacitance of skeletal muscle.Journal of Animal Science 50:67-74. 

51. Swatland, H.J. 1980.A histological basis for differences in breast meat yield between two strains of white turkeys.Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 94: 383-388. 

52. Swatland, H.J. 1979.Endomysial boundary scanning as a method of counting skeletal muscle fibres.Mikroskopie 35:280-288. 

53. Swatland, H.J. 1979.A method for myoglobin in cryostat sections of muscle by precipitation with sulfosalicylic acid. Stain Technology 54:245-249. 

54. Swatland, H.J. 1980.Membrane survival in prerigor beef muscle. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 13:45-46. 

55. Swatland, H.J. 1980.Analysis of growth in a complex muscle (M. supracoracoideus, Anas platyrhynchos). Growth 44:139-146. 

56. Swatland, H.J. 1980.Muscle fibre histochemistry in breast and leg meat of geese.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 13:135-136. 

57. Swatland, H.J. 1980.Postmortem changes in electrical capacitance and resistivity of pork.Journal of Animal Science 51:1108-1112. 

58. Swatland, H.J. 1981.Postmortem development of paleness in pork loins.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 14:147-149. 

59. Swatland, H.J. 1980.Development of carcass shape in Pekin and Muscovy ducks.Poultry Science 59:1773-1776. 

60. Stanley, D.W., Voisey, P. and Swatland, H.J. 1980. Texture-structure relationships in bacon lean.Journal of Texture Studies 11:217-238. 

61. Swatland, H.J. 1980.Volumetric growth in muscle fibers in ducks. Growth 44:355-362. 

62. Swatland, H.J. 1981. Cellular heterogeneity in the response of beef to electrical stimulation.Meat Science 5:451-455. 

63. Swatland, H,J. 1981.Allometric growth of histochemical types of muscle fibers in ducks. Growth 45:58-65. 

64. Swatland, H.J. 1982.Intermuscular variation in the physical properties of pork.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 15:92-95. 

65. Swatland, H.J. 1981.Electrical capacitance measurements on intact carcasses. Journal of Animal Science 53:666-669. 

66. Swatland, H.J. 1982.Meat color of pork chops in relation to pH and adductor capacitance of intact carcasses.Journal of Animal Science 54:264-267. 

67. Swatland, H.J. 1982.Cardiac activity during the exsanguination of pigs in an abattoir.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 15:161-164. 

68. Swatland, H.J. 1982.The challenges of improving meat quality. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 62:15-24. 

69. Swatland, H.J., Ward, P. and Tarrant, P.V. 1982. Electrical capacitance of dark-cutting beef.Journal of Food Science 47:686-688. 

70. Swatland, H.J. 1982.Histology of allometric growth in hindlimb muscles of pigs.Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 98:629-632. 

71. Swatland, H.J. 1982.Elimination of sarcoplasmic argyrophilia in the delineation of muscle fibre boundaries with silver. Mikroskopie.39:317-322. 

72. Swatland, H.J. 1982. Evaluation of pH-related aspects of pork quality by capacitance measurements in an abattoir.Canadian Journal of Animal Science 62:725-730. 

73. Swatland, H.J. 1982. Neuromuscular spindles in bovine foetuses with hereditary muscle fibre hyperplasia.Experientia 38:855. 

74. Swatland, H.J. 1982.Quantitative histochemistry of muscle enlargement and post mortem metabolism.Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science 16:278-305. 

75. Swatland, H.J. 1982. Fiber optic spectrophotometry and the wetness of meat. Journal of Food Science 47:1940-1943. 

76. Swatland, H.J. 1983.Measurement of electrical stunning, rate of exsanguination, and reflex activity of pigs in an abattoir.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 16:35-38. 

77. Swatland, H.J. 1983.Fiber optic spectrophotometry of color changes in cooked chicken muscles.Poultry Science 62: 957-959. 

78. Swatland, H.J. 1983.Aerobic activity in the axis of growing myofibers in the porcine biceps femoris.Journal of Animal Science56: 1324-1328. 

79. Swatland, H.J. 1983.Infrared fiber optic spectrophotometry of meat.Journal of Animal Science56: 1329-1333. 

80. Swatland, H.J. and Lutte, G.H. 1983.Fibre-optic spectrophotometry of pork carcass lymph nodes.Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, Series A.30:447-451. 

81. Swatland, H.J. 1983.Computer mnemonics for the stereology of a fibrous system.Acta Stereologia 2:193-194. 

82. Swatland, H.J., Brogna, R.J. and Lutte, G.H. 1984.Electrical activity in the cerebral hemispheres of electrically stunned pigs.Journal of Animal Science 58: 68-74. 

83. Swatland, H.J. 1983. The histochemistry of very small muscle fibres in growing skeletal muscles.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 61:435-442. 

84. Swatland, H.J. 1983. Cryogenic treatment of pork hams has little effect on pH-dependent aspects of meat quality. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 16: 254-255. 

85. Swatland, H.J. 1984. The radial distribution of succinate dehydrogenase activity in skeletal muscle fibres.Histochemical Journal 16:321-329. 

86. Swatland, H.J. and Lutte, G.H. 1984.Optical characteristics of deep pectoral myopathy in turkey carcasses.Poultry Science 63:289-293. 

87. Swatland, H.J. 1984. Intracellular distribution of succinate dehydrogenase activity in skeletal muscle fibers of geese. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62:235-240. 

88. Swatland, H.J. and Dutson, T.R. 1984.Postmortem changes in some optical, electrical and biochemical properties of electrically stimulated beef carcasses.Canadian Journal of Animal Science 64:45-51. 

89. Swatland, H.J. 1983.Morphometry of meat by scanning light microscopy.Food Microstructure 2: 135-141. 

90. Swatland, H.J. 1984.Optical characteristics of natural iridescence in meat.Journal of Food Science 49:685-686. 

91. Swatland, H.J. 1984. Studies on the microdistribution of aerobic enzymes and myoglobin in pork.Food Microstructure 3:9-15. 

92. Swatland, H.J. 1985.Observations on the microstructure of veal and on the detection of cooked pork.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 18:89-93. 

93. Swatland, H.J. 1985.Patterns of succinate dehydrogenase activity in a leg muscle of the domestic duck during post-natal development. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 55-57. 

94. Swatland, H.J. 1984.Color measurement of variegated meat products by spectrophotometry with coherent fiber optics.Journal of Food Science 50:30-33. 

95. Swatland, H.J. 1985.Fibre-optic spectrophotometry of immature bovine skeletal muscles and the cellular distribution of myoglobin and succinate dehydrogenase.Histochemical Journal 17: 675-682. 

96. Swatland, H.J. 1985.Early research on the fibrous microstructure of meat.Food Microstructure4: 73-82. 

97. Swatland, H.J. 1985.A computer-operated rigorometer for studying the development of rigor mortis in excised samples of pork and beef. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 18:207-212. 

98. Swatland, H.J. and Belfry, S. 1985.Post mortem changes in the shape and size of myofibrils from skeletal muscle of pigs.Mikroskopie42: 26-34. 

99. Swatland, H.J. 1985.Measurement of veal color by fiber optic spectrophotometry.Journal of Food Science50: 1489-1490. 

100. Swatland, H.J. 1985.Development of rigor mortis in intact sides of pork measured with a portable rigorometer.Journal of Animal Science61:882-886. 

101. Swatland, H.J. 1985.Optical and electronic methods of measuring pH and other predictors of meat quality in pork carcasses. Journal of Animal Science61: 887-891. 

102. Swatland, H.J. 1986.Postmortem spectrophotometry of pork and beef using quartz optical fibres.Meat Science 17: 97-106. 

103. Swatland, H.J. 1985.Growth-related changes in the intracellular distribution of succinate dehydrogenase in turkey muscle.Growth. 49: 409-416. 

104. Swatland, H.J. 1986.Pneumatic measurement of postmortem setting in pork carcasses.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 19: 167-169. 

105. Swatland, H.J. 1986.Color measurements on pork and veal carcasses by fiber optic spectrophotometry.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal19: 170-173. 

106. Swatland, H.J. 1986.Remote measurement of electrical capacitance in meat carcasses and the effect of frequency and temperature. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 1: 271-279. 

107. Swatland, H.J. 1987.Measurement of postmortem changes in pork by high-speed compression hysteresis.Journal of Animal Science64: 444-447. 

108. Swatland, H.J. 1987.Fiber optic spectrophotometry of color intensity problems in raw and cooked turkey breasts.Poultry Science 66: 679-682. 

109. Swatland, H.J. 1987.Fluorimetry of gelatin by fiber optics. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 20: 102-103. 

110. Swatland, H.J. 1987.Fiber-optic reflectance and autofluorescence of bovine elastin and differences between intramuscular and extramuscular tendon. Journal of Animal Science 64: 1038-1043. 

111. Swatland, H.J. 1987.Fluorimetry of bovine myotendon junction by fibre-optics and microscopy of intact and sectioned tissues. Histochemical Journal 19: 276-280. 

112. Swatland, H.J. 1987.Effect of excitation wavelength on the separation of Types I and III collagen by fiber optic fluorimetry. Journal of Food Science 52: 865-868. 

113. Swatland, H.J. 1987.Measurement of the gristle content of beef by macroscopic ultraviolet fluorimetry.Journal of Animal Science 65: 158-164. 

114. Swatland, H.J. 1987.Autofluorescence of adipose tissue measured with fibre optics.Meat Science 19: 277-84. 

115. Swatland, H.J. 1987.Remote monitoring of postmortem metabolism in pork carcasses.Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science 38:143-163. 

116. Swatland, H.J. 1988.Effect of interface conditions on the optoelectronic measurement of carcass meat quality. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture2: 233-42. 

117. Swatland, H.J. 1988.Interference colors of beef fasciculi in circularly polarized light.Journal of Animal Science 66: 379-84. 

118. Swatland, H.J.1987.Optical properties of white and yellow beef fat in relation to carcass grading.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 20: 383-6. 

119. Diesbourg, L., Swatland, H.J. and Millman, B. M. 1988.X-ray diffraction measurements of postmortem changes in the myofilament lattice of pork. Journal of Animal Science 66: 1048-54. 

120. Swatland, H.J. 1988.Autofluorescence of bovine ligamentum nuchae, cartilage, heart valve and lung measured by microscopy and fibre-optics.Research in Veterinary Science 45: 230-233. 

121. Swatland, H.J. 1988. Measurement of light scattering in normal pork using a fiber-optic goniophotometer.Journal of Animal Science 66: 2578-2582. 

122. Swatland, H.J. 1988.Carotene reflectance and the yellowness of bovine adipose tissue measured with a portable fibre-optic spectrophotometer.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 46: 195-200. 

123. Swatland, H.J. and Leeson, S. 1989.Reflectance of chicken feathers in relation to sex-linked coloration.Poultry Science 67: 1680-1683. 

124. Irving, T.C., Swatland, H.J. and Millman, B.M. 1989. X-ray diffraction measurements of myofilament lattice spacing and optical measurements of reflectance and sarcomere length in commercial pork loins.Journal of Animal Science 67: 152-156. 

125. Swatland, H.J. 1988.Selection of wavelengths at which to measure paleness in pork by fiber-optic spectrophotometry. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 21: 494-500. 

126. Swatland, H.J. 1988.A brief study of the effect of nitrite on bologna coloration measured with a fiber-optic spectrophotometer. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 21: 560-562. 

127. Bendall, J.R. and Swatland, H.J. 1988.A review of the relationships between pH and physical aspects of pork quality.Meat Science24: 85-126. 

128. Swatland, H.J., Irving, T.C. and Millman, B.M. 1989. Fluid distribution in pork, measured by x-ray diffraction, interference microscopy and centrifugation compared to paleness measured by fiber optics.Journal of Animal Science 67: 1465-1470. 

129. Swatland, H.J. 1989.Relationships between surface and internal reflectance in pork. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 22: 165-169. 

130. Swatland, H.J. 1989.A review of meat spectrophotometry (300 to 800 nm).Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 22: 390-402. 

131. Swatland, H.J. 1989.Effect of temperature (0 to 80 C) on the interior reflectance of ovine sternomandibularis muscle. International Journal of Food Science and Technology24: 503-510. 

132. Swatland, H.J. 1990.Effect of acidity on the optical transmittance of bovine myofibrillar proteins: how meat traps light at low wavelengths. Journal of Animal Science68: 1284-1290. 

133. Swatland, H.J. 1989.Thermal denaturation of perimysial collagen in meat measured by polarized light microscopy.Journal of Food Science55: 305-311. 

134. Swatland, H.J. 1989.Morphometry of pectoral development in turkey breeding stock.British Poultry Science 30: 787-797. 

135. Irving, T.C., Swatland, H.J. and Millman, B.M. 1989.Effect of pH on myofilament spacing in pork measured by x-ray diffraction.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 23: 79-81. 

136. Swatland, H.J. 1989.Birefringence of beef and pork muscle fibers measured by scanning and ellipsometry with a computer-assisted polarising microscope.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy 1: 249-262. 

137. Swatland, H.J. 1990.Effect of pH on the birefringence of skeletal muscle fibers measured with a polarizing microscope.Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 109:361-367. 

138. Swatland, H.J. 1989. Fiber-optic goniospectrophotometry of meat using a computer-assisted microscope spectrophotometer.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy1:331-341. 

139. Swatland, H.J. 1990. A note on the growth of connective tissues binding turkey muscle fibers together.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 23: 239-241. 

140. Swatland, H.J. and Barbut, S.1990.Fibre-optic spectrophotometry for predicting lipid content, pH and processing loss of comminuted meat slurry.International Journal of Food Science and Technology 25: 519-526. 

141. Swatland, H.J. 1991.Spatial and spectrophotometric measurements of light scattering in turkey breast meat using lasers and a xenon arc.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal24: 27-31. 

142. Swatland, H.J. 1991.Evaluation of probe designs to measure connective tissue fluorescence in carcasses.Journal of Animal Science69:1983-8. 

143. Swatland, H.J. 1990.Questions in programming a fluorescence microscope.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy 2: 125-132. 

144. Swatland, H.J. 1990.Intracellular glycogen distribution examined interactively with a light microscope scanning stage.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy2: 233-237. 

145. Swatland, H.J. 1991.Analysis of signals from a UV fluorescence probe for connective tissue in beef carcasses.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture6: 225-234. 

146. Swatland, H.J. and Barbut, S. 1991.Fluorimetry via a quartz-glass rod for predicting the skin content and processing characteristics of poultry meat slurry.International Journal of Food Science and Technology26: 373-380. 

147. Swatland, H.J. 1992.Computer-assisted apparatus for measuring physical properties of meat during compression.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 7:149-162. 

148. Irie, M. and Swatland, H.J. 1992.Relationships between Japanese pork color standards and optical properties of pork before and after frozen storage.Food Research International 25: 21-30. 

149. Swatland, H.J. 1992.Fiber optics in the food industry. Food Research International 25: 227-235.  

150. Swatland, H.J. and Irie, M. 1992.Effect of wavelength on spatial measurements of light scattering for the measurement of pork quality.Journal of Animal Science, 70: 2138-2143. 

151. Irie, M. and Swatland, H.J. 1993.Prediction of fluid losses from pork using subjective and objective paleness.Meat Science, 33: 277-292. 

152. Swatland, H.J. and Irie, M. 1991.Wavelength-position matrices in the fiber-optic analysis of meat.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy, 3: 149-155. 

153. Swatland, H.J. 1991.Effect of refractive index and cutting angle on internal Fresnel reflectance at the distal window of an optical fiber.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy, 3: 233-236. 

154. Swatland, H.J. 1992.Bidirectional operation of a UV fluorescence probe for beef carcass connective tissue.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 7: 285-300. 

155. Irie, M. and Swatland, H.J. 1992.Assessment of porcine fat quality by fiber-optic spectrophotometer.Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 5: 753-756. 

156. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Photomultiplier response in a computer-assisted microscope photometer measured with a multiprogrammer.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy, 5: 231-235. 

157. Swatland, H.J. 1993.An anomaly in the effect of temperature on collagen fluorescence in beef.Food Research International, 26: 271-276. 

158. Swatland, H.J. 1994.Physical measurements of meat quality: optical measurements, pros and cons.Meat Science 36: 251-259. 

159. Swatland, H.J. 1994.Sensors and real-time measurements.An approach to programming optical sensors in food research.Food Research International,27: 165-172. 

160. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Correction for base-line drifting in UV probe measurements of connective tissue in beef.Food Research International, 26: 371-374. 

161. Swatland, H.J., Warkup, C. and Cuthbertson, A. 1993.Testing a UV fluorescence probe for beef carcass connective tissues.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 9: 255-267. 

162. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Developing a fiber-optic probe to combine subcutaneous fat depth and meat quality measurements.Journal of Animal Science, 71: 2666-2673. 

163. Swatland, H.J. 1994.Dynamic analysis of electromechanical data from a hand-held probe in relation to meat structure.Food Research International, 27: 433-441. 

164. Irie, M. and Swatland, H.J. 1993.Fiber-optic methods and their applications to meat.Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi, 40: 747-754. 

165. Swatland, H.J. 1994.Program control of changes in the pH of biological specimens for light microscopy.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy, 6: 41-46. 

166. Swatland, H.J., Ananthanarayanan, S.P. and Goldenberg, A.A. 1994. A review of probes and robots.Implementing new technologies in meat evaluation. Journal of Animal Science, 72: 1475-1486. 

167. Swatland, H.J. 1996.Connective tissue distribution patterns in beef detected by ultraviolet fiber optics.Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technolgie, 29: 272-277. 

168. Swatland, H.J., Gullett, E., Hore, T. and Buttenham, S. 1994.UV fiber-optic probe measurements of connective tissue in beef correlated with taste panel scores for chewiness.Food Research International, 28:23-30. 

169. Swatland, H.J. 1995.Near-infrared birefringence and transmittance of pork in relation to pH, sarcomere length, cold-shortening and causes of paleness.Food Research International, 28: 153-159. 

170. Swatland, H.J. and Barbut, S. 1995.Optical prediction of processing characteristics of turkey meat using UV fluorescence and NIR birefringence.Food Research International, 28: 325-330. 

171. Swatland, H.J., Nielsen, T. and Andersen, J.R. 1995. Correlations of mature beef palatability with optical probing of raw meat.Food Research International, 28: 403-416. 

172. Swatland, H.J. 1995. Objective assessment of meat yield and quality.Trends in Food Science and Technology, 6: 117-120. 

173. Swatland, H.J. 1995.Prediction of physical properties of turkey meat from ultraviolet fluorescence measured through a hypodermic needle.Archiv für Tierzucht, 38: 437-444. 

174. Swatland, H.J. 1995.Reversible pH effect on pork paleness in a model system.Journal of Food Science, 60: 988-995. 

175. Swatland, H.J. 1995.Microscope spectrofluorometry of bovine connective tissue using a photodiode array.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy, 7: 165-170. 

176. Swatland, H.J., Madsen, N.T. and Nielsen, T.1996.Fluorometry of connective tissue in beef, relative to direction of measurement. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technolgie, 29: 536-541. 

177. Swatland, H.J. 1995.Surface reflectance of meat measured by microscope polarimetry and spectrophotometry using a tilting stage with lateral illumination.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy, 7: 211-219. 

178. Swatland, H.J. 1997. Spectrophotometry of beef muscle and adipose tissue during heating and cooling.Journal of Muscle Foods, 8: 1-12. 

179. Swatland, H.J. 1996. Effect of stretching pre-rigor muscle on the back-scattering of polarized near-infrared. Food Research International, 29, 445-449. 

180. Swatland, H.J.1996. Monitoring photomultiplier performance in a computer-assisted light microscope.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy, 8, 75-82. 

181. Swatland, H.J.1996.Observations on rheological, electrical, and optical changes during rigor development in pork and beef.Journal of Animal Science, 75: 975-985. 

182. Swatland, H.J. and Findlay, C.J. 1997. On-line probe prediction of beef toughness, correlating sensory evaluation with fluorescence detection of connective tissue and dynamic analysis of overall toughness.Food Quality and Preference.8: 233-239. 

183.Swatland, H.J. 1997.Relationships between the back-scatter of polarised light and the fibre-optic detection of connective tissue fluorescence in beef.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 75: 45-49.  

184. Swatland, H.J., Haworth, C.R., Darkin, F. and R.D. Moccia. 1997.Fiber-optic spectrophotometry of raw, smoked and baked Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus).Food Research International, 30: 141-146. 

185. Swatland, H.J. 1997. Post-mortem changes in pork, using parallel needles for both light scattering and low-frequency electrical properties.Food Research International, 30: 293-298. 

186. Swatland, H.J., Brooks, J.C. and Miller, M.F. 1998. Possibilities for predicting taste and tenderness of broiled beef steaks using an optical-electromechanical probe.Meat Science, 50, 1-12. 

187. Swatland, H.J. 1997. Internal Fresnel reflectance from meat microstructure in relation to pork paleness and pH.Food Research International, 30: 565-570. 

188. Swatland, H.J., Darkin, F., Naylor, S.J., Caston, L. and Moccia, R.D. 1998. Muscle colour development in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), monitored by fibre-optics and electrical impedance.Aquaculture Research, 29: 367-372. 

189. Swatland, H.J. and Uttaro, B. 1998.Optoelectrical assessment of pork quality using parallel hypodermic needles.Archiv für Tierzucht, 41: 379-385. 

190. Swatland, H.J. 1998.Pork softness assessed subjectively and objectively using vacuum-induced changes in reflectance.Journal of Muscle Foods, 9: 339-349. 

191. Swatland, H.J., Uttaro, B., Goldenberg, A.A. and Lu, Z. 1998.Meat quality variation in the robotic sorting of pork loins.Journal of Animal Science, 76: 2614-2618. 

192. Swatland, H.J. 1997.Using a computer-assisted microscope spectrophotometer to investigate optical and electrical anisotropy in skeletal muscle.Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy, 9: 183-190. 

193. Swatland, H.J. 1998.Recognition of spectra in the automated assessment of pork quality through single optical fibers. Food Research International, 31: 65-71. 

194. Swatland, H.J. and Barbut, S. 1999.Sodium chloride levels in comminuted chicken muscle in relation to processing characteristics and Fresnel reflectance detected with a polarimetric probe.Meat Science, 51: 377-381. 

195. Swatland, H.J. 1999.Feasibility of measuring meat texture and exudate using paired hypodermic needles for rheology, spectrophotometry and electrical impedance.Journal of Texture Studies, 30: 217-230. 

196. Swatland, H.J. 1999.Photometric relationship between path length and transmittance through pork measured by fiber optics.Food Research International, 32: 305-312. 

197. Swatland, H.J., Uttaro, B., Mohr, J. and Buddiger, N. 2001.Relationships between electrical impedance and fluid losses from turkey breast meat. Archiv für Tierzucht, 44: 109-113. 

198. Swatland, H.J. 2000.Connective and adipose tissue detection by simultaneous fluorescence and reflectance measurements with an on-line meat probe. Food Research International, 32: 749-757. 

199. Swatland, H.J., Uttaro, B., Buddiger, N. and Mohr, J. 2001. Spectrophotometry of polarised light transmitted through and reflected from slices of turkey breast meat in relation to pH and fluid losses. Food Research International,34: 117-121. 

200. Swatland, H.J. 2001. Effect of connective tissue on the shape of reflectance spectra obtained with a fibre-optic fat-depth probe in beef. Meat Science, 57: 209-213. 

201. Swatland, H.J. 2001. Optical properties of turkey pectoralis muscle affecting detection of connective tissue fluorescence. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 81: 25-31. 

202. Swatland, H.J. 2001. Elastic deformation in probe measurements on beef carcasses. Journal of Muscle Foods, 12: 97-105. 

203. Swatland, H.J. 2001. A note on the stereological anatomy of four probe sites in beef carcasses.Food Research International, 34: 633-637. 

204. Swatland, H.J. 1998. Microscope spectrophotometry with a continuous interference filter. Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy, 10: 145-150. 

205. Swatland, H.J. 2002. Modulation of the optical path through pork using sliding needles.Food Research International, 35: 347-350. 

206. Swatland, H.J. 2002. Optical dispersion through muscle fibers isolated from pork. Food Research International, 35: 559-564. 

207. Swatland, H.J. 2002. Refractometry of pork muscle and beef connective and adipose tissue. Meat Science, 62: 225-228. 

208. Swatland, H.J. 2003. Ellipsometry across isolated muscle fibres indicates a refractive contribution to paleness in pork. Meat Science, 63: 463-467. 

209. Swatland, H.J. 2002. Relationship between pork muscle fiber diameter and optical transmittance measured by scanning microphotometry. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 82: 321-325. 

210. Swatland, H.J. 2003. Photometry of light passing longitudinally along red and white pork muscle fibers at pH 5.5 and 7.9. Food Research International, 36: 545-549. 

211. Swatland, H.J. 2003. Fibre-optic spectrophotometry of beef relative to sarcomere length. Archiv für Tierzucht, 46: 31-34. 

212. Swatland, H.J. 2003. Seasonal changes of connective tissue fluorescence in well-aged beef roasts, correcting for fat reflectance and signal source. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 83: 445-450. 

213. Swatland, H.J. 2004.Absorbance of light by mitochondria in pork muscle fibres differing in myoglobin content. Meat Science, 67: 371-375. 

214. Swatland, H.J. 2004. Fiber-optic spectrophotometry of streaking in pork loins injected with sodium chloride and tripolyphosphate. Canadian Journal of Animal Science,  84: 385-389. 

215. Swatland, H.J. 2004. Progress in understanding the paleness of meat with a low pH. South African Journal of Animal Science, 34: 1-7. 

216. Swatland, H.J. 2005. A method for simultaneous fluorometry and rheology of connective tissue in bulk meat. Meat Science, 70: 605-611.
217. Swatland, H.J. 2005. On correlating penetrometry with photometry in beef roasts (short communication). Archive für Tierzucht, 48: 318-323.
218. Swatland, H.J. 2006. Stratification of connective tissue toughness in beef roasts assessed by simultaneous fluorometry and penetrometry. Food Research International, 39: 1106-1109.
219. Swatland, H.J. 2006. Thermal denaturation of bovine longissimus thoracis aponeurosis, correlating contraction with optical changes.  Canadian Journal of Animal Science,  86:  221-224.


1. Swatland, H.J. 1971.Morphology of the motor innervation of muscle. Proceedings of the Reciprocal Meat Conference 24: 400-417.

2. Swatland, H.J. 1976.Morphology and development of endomysial connective tissue.Proceedings of the Reciprocal Meat Conference 29: 375-381. 

3. Swatland, H.J. 1976. Recent research on postnatal muscle development in swine.Proceedings of the Reciprocal Meat Conference 29: 86-104.

4. Swatland, H.J. 1985.The innervation of muscle and the electrophysiology of meat.Proceedings of the Reciprocal Meat Conference 38: 1-8.

5. Swatland, H.J. 1989. Objective measurement of physical aspects of meat quality. Proceedings of the Reciprocal Meat Conference 42: 65-74.

6. Swatland, H.J. 1994.Optical prediction of water-holding capacity.Proceedings of the Reciprocal Meat Conference.47: 99-111.



1. Stanley, D.W., Swatland, H.J. and Vail, J. 1977. Microstructure of bacon adipose tissue.European Meat Research Workers Conference, 23(I): 1-11.

2. Swatland, H.J. 1994.Physical measurements of meat quality: optical measurements, pros and cons. 38th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Published in Meat Science 36: 251-259.

3. Swatland, H.J. 1999. On-line evaluation of meat quality using probes and robots. 45th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan. pp. 336-343.

4. Swatland, H.J. 2003. On-line evaluation of meat quality: state of the art. 49th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Campinas, Brazil. Published in Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 6: 102-111.

5. Swatland, H.J. 2007. Stratification of toughness in beef roasts. Beijing, China.


1. Swatland, H.J. 1982.Histochemical studies on meat.Proceedings of the Royal Microscopical Society, London. 17(4): S28.

2. Swatland, H.J. 1988. Effects of Slaughter Techniques on Pig Meat Quality. International Meeting on Pig Carcass and Meat Quality, University of Bologna 900th Anniversary Symposia. pp. 213-234.

3. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Optical and electronic grading of meat quality. (translated to Japanese). Osaka Veterinary Medical Association.

4. Swatland, H.J.1995.Optical probes for evaluating turkey meat quality.In Proceedings of the 18th Technical Turkey Conference, Glasgow.Published by Turkeys, Newbury, Berks.

5. Swatland, H.J.1996.Fibre-optic evaluation of carcass quality.In: New Technologies for Carcass Grade and Quality Assessment. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Symposium, Canadian Meat Science Association, Toronto. pp. 35-41.

6.Swatland, H.J. 1996.Lihan Mureuden Arvioiminen Tuotantolinjalla. (Finnish: On-line evaluation of meat toughness).Lihapäivät 1996. HY/MMETT/Lihateknologian julkaisuja no. 536, University of Helsinki. pp. 21-33. ISSN 0785-5842. Reprinted: Institute of Meat Bulletin 7(1): 15-18.

7. Swatland, H.J. 1996. On-line kvalitetsmätningar för effektivare kvalitetsstyrning inom köttindustrin. Göteborg, Sweden.Rapport nr 6, NordFoods nätverk, p. 6.

8. Swatland, H.J. 1998.Meat quality: new technology in the abattoir. Proceedings of the 15th International Pig Veterinary Congress, Birmingham, England. S. Done, J. Thomson and M. Varley (Editors). Volume 1, pp. 115-123. Nottingham University Press.

9. Swatland, H.J. 2004. Sustainable meat production and quality. South African Society of Animal Science Annual Meeting, Goudini, South Africa, 28 June - 1 July, 2004. The Paradigm of Efficiency and Sustainability, p. 2. Plenary Session.



1. Swatland, H.J. 1982.Variability in apparent numbers of muscle fibres. International Society for Stereology, Sheffield, England. p.3.

2. Swatland, H.J. 1984.Microcolorimetry of food systems by coherent fiber optic spectrophotometry with a microcomputer. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology, Vancouver, Canada.p. 41.

3. Irving, T.C., Diesbourg, L., Swatland, H.J. and Millman, B. 1988.Applications of biophysical techniques to meat science.Canadian Federation of Biological Societies, 31 st Annual Meeting, Proceedings, London, Canada. p. 50.

4. Swatland, H.J. 1994.Optical sensors (UV, VIS & NIR) for the determination of connective tissue, lipid, and protein functionaliity in meat.In: Developments in Food Engineering, edited by T. Yano, R. Matsuno and K. Nakamura.Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Engineering and Food, Chiba, Japan.Part 2, pp. 936-938. Blackie Academic & Professional, London.

5. Swatland, H.J., Uttaro, B., Mohr, J. and Buddiger, N. 2000. On-line prediction of fluid losses from turkey meat. Proceedings of the XXI World's Poultry Congress, Montreal, Canada, August 20-24, 2000.

6. Swatland, H.J. 2002. Effect of acidity on optical properties of isolated skeletal muscle fibers. Microscopy and Microanalysis, Quebec City, Canada, August 5-8, 2002. Paper #724.



1. Swatland, H.J. 1971.Recent advances in the microscopic analysis of muscle growth.Institute of Meat Bulletin 74: 9-14.

2. Swatland, H.J. 1972.Nerve cells, muscle fibres and meat science. Institute of Meat Bulletin 77:27-36.

3. Swatland, H.J. 1974.The number of fibres in a muscle.Institute of Meat Bulletin 84: 12-16.

4. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Meat probes and robots.Institute of Meat Bulletin3:9-11.

5. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Scientific aspects of slaughtering.Institute of Meat Bulletin3 (11): 9-12.

6. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Scientific aspects of making meat from muscles.Part 1. Institute of Meat Bulletin3 (12): 17-18.

7. Swatland, H.J. 1994. Scientific aspects of making meat from muscles. Part 2.Institute of Meat Bulletin4 (13): 12-14.

8. Swatland, H.J. 1994. Scientific aspects of fat. Institute of Meat Bulletin4 (14): 14-17.

9. Swatland, H.J. 1994. Scientific aspects of bone. Institute of Meat Bulletin4 (15): 14-17.

10. Swatland, H.J. 1994.Scientific aspects of fibrous connective tissue. Institute of Meat Bulletin4 (16): 17-21. 

11. Swatland, H.J. 1995.Scientific aspects of meat microstructure. Institute of Meat Bulletin5 (1): 26-28.

12. Swatland, H.J. 1995. Scientific aspects of meat: contraction, rigor and conditioning.Institute of Meat Bulletin5(2): 19-21.

13. Swatland, H.J. 1995. Scientific aspects of watery pork or PSE.Institute of Meat Bulletin5(3): 19-20.

14. Swatland, H.J. 1995. Scientific aspects of meat animal growth and development: Part 1.Institute of Meat Bulletin5(4): 19-20.

15. Swatland, H.J.1996.Scientific aspects of meat animal growth and development.Part 2: Prenatal development. Institute of Meat Bulletin6(1): 20-22.

16.Swatland, H.J. 1996.Scientific aspects of meat animal growth and development.Part 3: Proportional or allometric growth. Institute of Meat Bulletin6(2): 16-18.

17.Swatland, H.J. 1996.Scientific aspects of meat animal growth and development.Part 4. Institute of Meat Bulletin6(3): 15-22.

18. Swatland, H.J. 1996.Scientific aspects of meat animal growth and development. Part 5.Energy and efficiency. Institute of Meat Bulletin6(4): 15-18.

19. Swatland, H.J. 1997.A connective tissue probe for beef. Institute of Meat Bulletin7(2): 15-17.

20. Swatland, H.J. 1997.Introduction to hindlimb muscles. Institute of Meat Bulletin7(3): 15-17.  

21. Swatland, H.J. 1997.Poultry meat quality. Institute of Meat Bulletin7(4): 20-21. 

22. Swatland, H.J. 1998. Fat-depth measurement. Institute of Meat Bulletin8(1): 20-21. 

23. Swatland, H.J. 1998. Beef and Liberty! Institute of Meat Bulletin8(1): 16-18. Translated by Gabriel Monin and reprinted as Du Boeuf et la Liberté! Viandes Produits Carnés 21:79.  

24. Swatland, H.J. 1998. Meat through the microscope. Worshipful Company of Butchers' Guild Bulletin 5(1): 10-11. 



1. Swatland, H.J. 1975.Fresh meat technology.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 8:A102-3.

2. Swatland, H.J. 1976.Meat animals, growth and productivity. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 9:A62.

3. Swatland, H.J. 1976.Processed meat technology.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 9: A78-9.

4. Swatland, H.J. 1978.The science of life.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal11: A53.

5. Swatland, H.J. 1979.Training manual for meat cutting and merchandising.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 12: A21.

6. Swatland, H.J. 1980.Meat handbook.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 13: 105.

7. Swatland, H.J. 1980.Practical meat cutting and merchandising. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 13: 4. 

8. Swatland, H.J. 1981.Developments in meat science. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 14: 26-7. 

9. Swatland, H.J. 1981.Human physical growth and maturation. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 14: 101. 

10. Swatland, H.J. 1981. Meat and meat products: Factors affecting quality control.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 15: 79.

11. Swatland, H.J. 1985.In vivo measurement of body composition in meat animals.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal. 18: 193.

12. Swatland, H.J. 1985.Advances in Meat Research, Volume 1. Electrical Stimulation.Canadian Institute of Food science and Technology Journal. 19: 90-91.

13. Swatland, H.J. 1986.Biochemical Identification of Meat Species.Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 20:142.

14. Swatland, H.J. 1986.Meat Science. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 20:61.



1. Swatland, H.J. 1974.Histological analysis of the loin eye-muscle area. Swine Industry Report, University of Guelph, 1973-4 pp. 59-61.

2. Swatland, H.J. 1976.Basic research on the problem of PSE pork. Swine Industry Research Report, University of Guelph, 1975-6 pp. 26-30.

3. Swatland, H.J. 1977.Muscle growth and meat quality.Swine Industry Research Report, University of Guelph, 1976-7

4. Swatland, H.J. 1978.Research on objective methods of measuring beef tenderness.Beef Industry Research Report, University of Guelph pp. 30-31. 

5. Swatland, H.J. 1978. Electrical stimulation of beef carcasses in the abattoir. Beef Industry Research Report, University of Guelph pp. 32-3. 

6. Swatland, H.J. 1978. Research on meat chemistry and dark cutting beef. Beef Industry Research Report, University of Guelph pp. 34-5.

7. Swatland, H.J. 1979. Pork quality - from the abattoir to the dinner plate. Highlights of Agricultural Research in Ontario 2: 13-15. 

8. Swatland, H.J. 1979.Abattoir technology for beef.Breeder and Feeder June, p. 4. 

9. Swatland, H.J. 1979. Electrical stimulation and dark-cutting beef. Breeder and Feeder, October, p. 22.

10. Swatland, H.J. 1980.Meat chemistry in relation to animal growth rate and pork quality.Swine Industry Research Report, University of Guelph pp. 1-3.

11. Swatland, H.J. 1981.PSE/DFD from the physiological and biochemical viewpoint.Agriculture Canada, PSE/DFD Work Planning Meeting 6:1-8.

12. Swatland, H.J. 1983. Abattoir detection of PSE pork and dark-cutting beef.Strategic Grants, Summaries of Completed Research Projects, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada p.169.

13. Swatland, H.J. 1985.Detection and measurement of PSE pork by fiber optics.Ontario Swine Research Reviewpp. 25-28.

14. Ball, R.O., Swatland, H.J. and Usborne, W.R. 1987. Factors affecting the quality of pork. Highlights of Agricultural Research in Ontario10: 12-15.

15. Swatland, H.J. 1986.Progress report on pork quality and fiber optics research. Agriculture Canada PSE/DFD Work Plannning Meeting.

16. Swatland, H.J. 1987.A new method to measure the gristle content of ground beef. Beef Research Update, OAC Publication 0588, pp.37-39.

17. Swatland, H.J. 1988.Studies on PSE pork using x-ray diffraction, interference and electron microscopy, high-speed centrifugation and fiber-optic spectrophotometry: identifying the source of the exudate. Ontario Swine Research Review. pp. 68-71. 

18. Swatland, H.J. 1988.An overview of research on slaughtering and pork quality.Ontario Swine Research Review.pp. 8-13.

19. Swatland, H.J. 1987.A new method for the measurement of beef fat colour. Beef Research Update, OAC Publication 0588, pp. 34-36.

20. Swatland, H.J. 1990.Instrumentation in determining carcass merit.Beef Improvement Federation Proceedings pp. 69-71. 

21. Ball, R.O., Swatland, H.J., Bruce, H.L. and Hore, J.T. 1990.A potential optical scanner for measuring marbling in beef.Beef Research Update, OAC Publication 0291. pp. 18-20. 

22. Swatland, H.J. 1990.Probe measurements of connective tissues in beef carcasses. Beef Research Update, OAC Publication 0291. pp. 25-26. 

23. Swatland, H.J. 1991.Future prospects for measuring meat quality.Proceedings 27th Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers, Canadian Feed Industry Association, Ottawa. pp. 72-76. 

24. Swatland, H.J. 1991.Muscle growth in turkeys. 1991 Hybrid Technical Symposium, Kitchener, Ontario. pp. 26-28. 

25. Irie, M. and Swatland, H.J. 1992.Prediction of fluid losses from pork after freezing, thawing and preparation by thin-slicing for Japanese cuisine.Ontario Swine Research Report, pp. 37-38.  

26. Swatland, H.J. 1992. PSE.Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Centralia College, 11th Annual Swine Research Update. pp. 39-44. 

27. Swatland, H.J. 1992. University of Guelph, Meat Technology Group Report, 1992. p. 15.  

28. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Testing a carcass probe for connective tissue.Beef Research Update OAC Publication No. 0393. pp. 36-38.  

29. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Meat science fiction: muscle fibres and optical fibres converse through spectrocolorimetry.University of Guelph, Meat Technology Group Report, 1993. p. 15. 

30. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Testing a carcass probe for connective tissue.Breeder & Feeder, Ontario Cattlemen's Association. p. 8. 

31. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Muscle growth in turkeys.Misset-World Poultry. 9(12):44-45.  

32. Swatland, H.J. 1994.Update on the connective tissue probe. Beef Research Update, OAC Publication 0394, pp. 27-29. 

33. Swatland, H.J. 1994. Combining fat depth and meat quality measurements.Ontario Swine Research Review 1994.OAC Publication 0294. pp. 48-49. 

34. Swatland, H.J. 1996. On-line evaluation of meat. Second PIC Pork Chain Conference. Toronto, September 24-25. PIC, Franklin, Kentucky.pp. 118-126. 

35. Swatland, H.J. 1997. Early PSE detection.Ontario Swine Research Review, University of Guelph.pp. 50-51. 

36. Swatland, H.J. and C.J. Findlay. 1997.Testing the CT-Probe for meat toughness on commercially competitive sources of beef. Ontario Beef Research Update, pp. 70-71. 



1. Swatland, H.J. 1992. Meat quality.Feed-back and feed-forward, for on-line information about meat quality.Meat Focus International 1: 31-35.

2. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Teaching forum.Meat Focus International 2:98.

3. Swatland, H.J. 1993.Explaining the P in PSE.Optical properties of meat.Meat Focus International 2: 362-367. 

4. Swatland, H.J. 1993.On staying awake in class. Meat Focus International 2: 265-266. 

5.Swatland, H.J. 1993.The classroom as a battlefield.Meat Focus International 2: 310-311. 

6. Swatland, H.J. 1994.Muscle structure.Update on an old problem - tapered muscle fibres.Meat Focus International 3: 123-126.

7. Swatland, H.J. 1995.Integrating meat into the agri-food curriculum.Meat Focus International 4: 54-56.