A very small triangular muscle of the mammalian fore limb, inserted on the dorsal surface of the distal end of the radius. It has pennate tendinous bands forming a tendon which passes medially to insert on the third metacarpal in ruminants and on the second in the pig.




Societies to promote the introduction of "useful" species from one geographic locality to another. The definition of useful often includes an edible myosystem, but sometimes the "useful" species turns out to be a pest in its new environment, like the rabbit in Australia. The Société d'Acclimatation was formed in Paris in 1854 by the zoologist and embryologist, Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. A similar society was formed in London in 1860 by Frank ® Buckland (pioneer aquaculturist), with prompting from Robert Owen (comparative anatomist). Acclimatisation societies had a major impact on our present patterns of food production. With the conclusion of colonial development, current acclimatisation societies are mostly entrepreneurial and based on a single species, such as the introduction of meat-producing ® ratites to North America and Europe.




A large muscle deep in the mammalian hind limb. However, it is visible on a side of the carcass, where it usually contributes to the D-shaped area of muscle exposed just distal to the pubis. Thus, this is one of the few major hind limb muscles from which data can be collected on an intact side. Its main origins are on the ventral region of the ischium and pubis, and on the subpelvic ligament. It is inserted on the posterior face of the shaft of the femur. Adductor femoris is seen in round steaks and ham slices, located between the pectineus (which is anterior) and the semimembranosus (which is posterior) but, in lean animals, the separations between the adductor femoris and these other two muscles may be difficult to detect without probing.




Trade name for ® pubis + ® ischium.




A long-legged deep-sea crab, Paralithodes camtschatica, ® Crabs.




A bony fish, Alosa, of the herring family, ® Clupeiformes.




In ® North American beef cutting, and armbone chuck would be the chuck + the attached shank shown in Original 63.




A small herring-like bony fish, Engraulis, ® Clupeiformes.




The aconaeus or anconeus is a small muscle of the mammalian fore limb, originating on the distal, posterior surface of the humerus and inserted onto the olecranon process. It covers the olecranon fossa of the humerus and may be difficult to separate from the lateral head of the triceps in a lean carcass, especially in lamb. The anconaeus is divided into two parts in the pork carcass.




The eel family has only one genus, Anguilla (Original 7). The freshwater eels have small cycloid scales in their skin and their teeth are small. They are catadromous (living in freshwater and travelling out to sea to spawn). Both American (A. rostrata) and the larger European eel (A. anguilla) breed near the Sargasso Sea and the leptocephalus larvae take several years to return to the rivers from which their parents originated. The immature eels returning to freshwater are thin, with a leaf-like shape, and are called elvers. In their freshwater habitat, eels have a greenish color. Eels migrating to the Sargasso Sea to mate are silver colored and their digestive system is atrophic. The myosystem of the adult eel is firm and white with a distinctive sweet flavor, and is often used for a jellied or marinated product. Large silver eels with a high fat content produce a better smoked product than smaller yellow eels.


References: Jessop (1993).




In arthropods, an apodeme is an internal projection of the exoskeleton to a muscle, like an ossified tendon. Removal of apodemes in crustacean myosystems may affect the textural properties of crustacean myosystems, as may any apodeme residues.



Regardless of spelling, char or charr, Salvelinus alpinus, is a freshwater or sea-running circumpolar salmonid, but now also farmed at lower latitudes, ® Salmoniformes.




A small muscle in the mammalian hind limb, originating proximally to the trochlear surface of the femur and inserted onto the patella and adjacent ligaments and cartilages.




In ® North American beef cutting, a back would be the chuck + rib shown in Original 63.






In the developed countries, beef is mostly produced from cattle of the genus Bos. However, there are several other genera which will interbreed with Bos to produce fertile, beefy offspring: Bison; Poephagus, the yak; Bibos, the gaurs; Bubalus, the Indian buffalo; Sunda; and Syncerus, the African buffalo. Several different species of Bos are recognized such as B. nomadicus and B. indicus. B. indicus may have been derived from B. nomadicus and is now recognized by the following features: a prominent shoulder hump of muscle supported by dorsal spines of the vertebrae, a long face with drooping ears, upright horns, small brow ridges, a prominent dewlap, slender legs, and uniform colouration (white, gray or black).


In North America, cattle were introduced by Spanish settlers to the south-west US, giving rise to breeds such as the Texas Longhorn. But in the north, cattle were mainly derived from primitive breeds brought by French and British settlers. Bos primigenius genes were probably carried by the Spanish cattle while the primitive northern breeds were probably a mixture of B. primigenius and B. longifrons. In early settlements, the primary importance of cattle was their ability to pull a plough or a cart, and they were not normally slaughtered until the end of their working life. Improved British breeds of cattle developed in the late 1700s and 1800s were imported into North America to form the basic Shorthorn, Angus, Hereford stock. Between 1905 and 1920, Bos indicus (Brahman cattle from India) were introduced into the southern US because of their heat tolerance. The most recent phase of beef breed development in North Amwerica has been a re-introduction of Continental European beef breeds with rapid early growth and a large mature frame size, originally preserved as draft animals where steam engines were scarce. The large size of some of these breeds suggests that they may contain genes derived from Bos primigenius. There is renewed interest in early maturing breeds, such as Angus, because of their ability to produce fine-grained, tender beef. Whether or not these features will survive the current selection practices in favour of rapid early growth and a large mature frame remains to be seen.


References: Zeuner (1963), Ucko and Dimbleby (1969).




A medium-sized muscle of the mammalian fore limb with an appreciable connective tissue content. It occupies a position similar to that of the biceps in the human arm but, in meat animals, some of the neck muscles (such as brachiocephalicus) overlap the top of the forelimb so that the biceps brachii is covered and not exposed, as in the human arm. The origin of the biceps brachii is on the tuber scapulae (next to the socket joint on the scapula) and most of its insertion is on the proximal part of the radius and ulna.





A very large muscle (> 7% total muscle mass) on the lateral surface of the mammalian hind limb. Its origins are extensive and include the dorsal spine of the sacrum, the sacroiliac and sacrosciatic ligaments, and the lateral surface of the ischium, near the acetabulum. Its insertions include the fascia lata, lateral patellar ligament, and anterior tibial crest. This massive muscle is seen all through the beef round and pork ham. It has a deep fissure so that the biceps femoris may look like two separate muscles when it is seen in transverse section. In pork, the main muscle and its accessory lobe often differ in degree of myoglobin redness. The biceps femoris in meat animals includes part of the equivalent muscle to the human gluteus superficialis.




In ® North America, steaks of ® beef longissimus dorsi.




® Semispinalis capitis.




Western Atlantic shore crab, Callinectes sapidus, ® Crabs.




In processed crab meat, blue discoloration ranges from light blue, through gray, to black. It may develop during or after heat treatment, and is may be caused by a constituent of the blood because it is reduced by exsanguination before processing. The problem may originate from iron or copper compounds, phenolic compounds such as tyrosine forming melanin, copper proteins or biuret complexes, or hemocyanin. Whatever the cause, it is different from the black discoloration caused by an interaction between the product and the can to form ferrous sulfide.


Reference: Boon (1975).




A perch of the family Serranidae, ® Perciformes.




In this order of teleost fish, the most important food fish is in the family Scomberesocidae, the Atlantic saury, Scomberesox saurus (Original 8). Large schools sometimes are found, often with tunny or mackerels in pusuit. The Atlantic saury currently is of limited commercial importance, although small quantities are canned on a seasonal basis. The body is green-blue along the back, and the belly is silver-colored. The overall shape of the saury is elongated with a long beak. Length reaches about 40 cm. The flesh is oily, but with a desirable taste.


Reference: Scott and Messieh (1976).








Quebec, ® chuck of beef.




A cod-like bony fish or pollock, Pollachius virens, ® Gadiformes.




In ® North American beef cutting, the bottom or outside round is from the lateral face of the hindlimb and contains ® semitendinosus (eye of the round) and ® biceps femoris.




A medium sized muscle of the mammalian fore limb, slightly smaller than the nearby biceps brachii. It wraps around the humerus in a spiral from its origin in the proximal part of the muscular-spiral groove to its insertion on a tuberosity on the medial surface of the radius (Original 21). In the pig, the brachialis is quite a large muscle with a divided tendon at its insertion.




A broad, flat muscle extending along the side of the neck from the head to the fore limb in mammals (Original 22). It has proved difficult for anatomists to decide whether this muscle is split into two or three parts, or whether it is formed by the fusion of two or three muscles with separate origins, all inserting on the crest of the humerus, close to pectoralis superficialis. The simplest subdivision of the muscle is into a dorsal part (cleidocervicalis) originating occipitally and a ventral part (cleidomastoideus) originating from the mandible and mastoid. However, meat cuts taken from the neck region are poorly defined comemrcially and of no great value, so that subtleties of muscle anatomy are unimportant with respect to food myosystems.





An oval flatfish with smooth scales, Scophthalmus rhombus, ® Pleuronectiformes.




Francis Trevelyan Buckland (1826 to 1880), was the son of a famous geologist and palaeontologist (William Buckland). After service as a surgeon in the British army, he devoted himself to aquaculture and became Inspector of Fisheries for the British government in 1867. He was founder of the ® Acclimatisation Society. His enthusiasm for introducing new muscle foods was motivated by a desire to improve the nutrition of ordinary people and balanced by an instinct for conservation.


Reference: Bompas (1886).




Incomplete slicing a steak or chop to leave a hinge that allows the product to be opened like butterfly wings to increase its display and cooking area.




® Kabob.




® North American meat cuts.




An oily Pacific salmonid, Thaleichthyes, ® Salmoniformes.




A small smelt-like bony fish from Arctic or sub-Arctic seas, ® Salmoniformes.




A freshwater pond fish, ® Cypriniformes




A freshwater bony fish, ® Cypriniformes




A large retail cut of beef in ® North America. It is composed of a round steak, as shown in Original 67, but only the muscles level with or posterior to the femur.




A very small, thin, ribbon of muscle that crosses the mammalian trachea near the thyroid gland. Its remains, if any, are generally dessicated in the neck of a dressed carcass.




Intermediate moisture (45%) meat products with a high (15%) sodium chloride content in tropical countries. Typically with some protein denaturation (A band and M line) and fluid channels created during dehydration.


Reference: Biscontini et al. (1996).




A salmonid bony fish, ® Salmoniformes




A primal cut of beef in ® North America, essentially the same as a ® hip of beef, that is, leaving the anterior part of the ® sirloin tip on the primal ® sirloin.






The Chondrichthyes are the cartilagenous fish. Their skeletons are composed of stiff white cartilage, and the hardest parts of their bodies are the sharp, plate-like denticles protecting their skin. Dermal denticles are greatly enlarged in the mouth where an intucking of the epidermis provides a continuous conveyer-belt of teeth derived from enlarged denticles. Shagreen is a form of leather produced from shark skin. The sharp denticles are ground down and dyed to form a remarkably durable and attractive surface.

In the Chondrichthyes, the gills open separately onto the surface of the body to form a series of slits (usually five) plus a small round accessory hole called the spiracle,just behind the head. The familiar sharks and rays are in the order Euselachii, and are distinguished by the position of their gill slits. The Pleurotremata have lateral gill slits, like sharks, while the Hypotremata are dorso-ventrally flattened with ventral gill slits, as in the rays. Typical examples are the dogfish for the Pleurotremata, and the skates and thornback ray for the Hypotremata. In the flattened skates and rays of the Hypotremata, the spiracle is located on top of the body behind the eye, from where water is drawn inwards through the gill chambers and vented to the exterior through the ventral gill slits. The wings of the skate (Raja radiata, the thorny skate, and R. senta, the smooth skate) produce a myosystem with a distinctive and delicate flavor, rather like ® scallop. After cooking, long strips of muscle can be removed from the cartilagenous rays quite easily.



The skeletal musculature of the Chondrichthyes provides an excellent food myosystem with both a desirable taste and texture, but it has one unfortunate feature with regard to food technology. Marine vertebrates above the level of the jawless fish or Agnatha maintain their body fluids using a concentration of inorganic ions at about 40% of the level found in sea water. This requires a physiological mechanism for the maintenance of an osmotic equilibrium between the body fluids and the external aquatic environment. Thus, the Chondrichthyes retain a high concentration of urea in the blood. The gills and other exposed body surfaces are relatively impermeable to urea and so the body tends to take up water by osmosis. An osmotic equilibrium is maintained by the fish continuously excreting hypotonic urine. After the fish has been caught and processed, its muscles still retain a high concentration of urea. Because urea readily breaks down to form ammonia post mortem, there may be a rapid deterioration of the stored product, with consequences best imagined rather than directly experienced. When cooking the fresh myosystem the problem of ammonia formation may be avoided by marinating the fillets with vinegar or lemon juice. Dogfish (Squalus) are metamorphosed to rock salmon by a magical battering in British fish and chip shops. Dogfish belly flaps are used for a smoked delicacy for German beer gardens, while the fins find a use in Japanese and Chinese cooking.

Both slow,red and fast-white fibers occurs in dogfish ® myomeres. The red fibers are lateral to the white fibers, separated by a zone of intermediate fibers. In frozen sections of a 50 cm fish, white fibers have a diameter of 150 to 170 um, while red fibers have diameters of 18 to 35 um. Red fibers are innervated by widely distributed neuromuscular junctions, while white fibers are innervated near the ® myocomma.


References: Jordan (1923), Hardy (1959), Bone (1966), Jones (1967), Royce (1972), Simms and Quin (1973), Browning (1974), Scott and Messieh (1976), Lagler (1977), McKone and LeGrow (1983), Walsh (1993).




Freshwater tropical fish, ® Perciformes.








This order of bony fish contains some of the most valuable food fishes (Original 9). In the family Clupeidae are the herring, sardine, sprat and shad, all with a fairly primitive type of body structure. The fins are supported by rays that are mostly branched and without any spines. The paired pectoral fins are located at the bottom edge of the gill openings while the paired pelvic fins are located fairly far back, usually half way or more along the overall length of the fish. The tail is often deeply forked. Herrings occur in vast shoals feeding on plankton around the world, except in the Arctic and Antarctic. Gill-rakers (stiff combs on the inner edges of the gill arches) filter plankton from water streaming outwards over the gills. The myosystems generally have a conspicuous pattern of diffrentiation into red (slow) and white (fast) muscle (Original 19), ® fiber types.

The herrings of the family Clupeidae provide a high-quality food myosystem containg a high oil content, but with many intramuscular bones. Although the total tonnage of anchovies caught each year exceeds that of herrings, most herrings are used directly as human food whereas many of the anchovies are dried to make lower-priced fish meal. Hence, the economic value of the herring catch is greater. Most herring are caught by the centuries-old method of drift-net fishing, using a net supended vertically in the water from floats on the surface, and weighted by a heavy cable running along the bottom edge of the net. Numerous nets may be connected to reach several kilometers in length, with the fishing vessel or drifter dragging slightly at one end. During the darkness of the night, shoals of herring ascending to near the surface are trapped by their gills. Individual fish become lodged with their heads through the meshes of the net, unable to retreat backwards because their gill covers are caught. When the nets are hauled aboard in the morning, the meshes are stretched open and the fish are released onto the deck and into the waiting holds below.


The northern hemisphere herring Clupea harengus (Original 9) is of great historical importance in European trading and still has a vast present-day market. Although fresh herring is very tasty, most herrings are preserved in some way: (1) after removal of the head, fish may be salted in barrels on board the fishing vessel; (2) refrigerated herring may be gutted and smoked to produce red herring; (3) salted herring may be smoked to produce a bloater; or (4) herrings may be preserved in brine and then smoked to produce a kipper. The small yellow-orange eggs of herring may be used to make a type of caviar.


Sardinops is the pilchard or large sardine, while ordinary sardines are usually Sardinia, canned in oil. Sprattus, the sprat, is usually canned or smoked, while Alosa, the shad or alewife (Original 9), is oven-cooked, although once it was valued for its ease of salting in barrels. The American shad, Alosa sapidissima, is the largest of the herring family and has razor- sharp scutes or modified scales along the ventral abdomen. It is prized for its taste, although it is very bony. However, many alewives such as A. pseudoharengus end up as canned pet food. The alewife A. pseudoharengus often coexists with a similar fish, A. aestivalis, the blueback herring. The former has a gray or pink-white body cavity lining, while the latter is sooty black. Least of all, Brevoortia, the menhaden, has very bony muscle and is used for fish meal and oil (Original 9).


The family Engraulidae contains the anchovies. These small (< 20 cm) fish are similar in appearance to small herrings but have an elongated snout, a larger mouth, and a rounded belly. They are widely distributed from tropical to temperate waters, with well developed fisheries off the coast of Chile, and smaller fisheries in the north-west Pacific, in the north-east Atlantic, in the Mediterranean, and off Australia. Like the herring family, the anchovies are planktonic filter feeders. Much of the catch is converted to oil, fish-meal or powdered products, but anchovies may also be salted and preserved whole for human consumption. Engraulis, the anchovy, may be eaten fresh in coastal areas (like sardines) but is usually salted or smoked, or used to make paste.


References: Hardy (1959), Royce (1972), Jessop (1990), Dadswell (1990).




A cod-like bony fish or pollock, Pollachius virens, ® Gadiformes.




A small triangular muscle originating from the deep surface of the sacrosciatic ligament and extending into the mammalian tail.




A bony fish, Gadus, ® Gadiformes.




® semispinalis capitis.




A small muscle on the medial surface of the mammalian shoulder joint (Original 23). In beef and lamb it may be divisible into two parts, but not in pork. It originates from the scapula, on the coracoid process and around the glenoid, and is attached medially on the humerus.




Quebec, ® rib of beef.






Crabs are decapod crusteaceans of the suborder Macrura-Reptantia (® Crustacea). Edible crabs originate from coastal fishereies for shore crabs, and deep-sea fishereies for crabs such as the Alaska king crab. The common edible crab in Britain (Cancer pagurus) was known to the Romans and, during the middle ages, local seacoast industries developed for the systematic harvesting of crabs in baited wicker traps or pots. Starting in the nineteenth century, the traditional industries were shaped by: (1) the development of transport systems, from railways to air freight, that enabled the rapid distribution of fresh produce to inland cities; (2) the development of microbiologically safe methods of food preservation; and (3) the statutory regulation of the types and total amounts of crustaceans that can be harvested.


Deep-sea crabs


Although king crabs (Paralithodes camtschatica) were first canned in Japan at the end of the nineteenth century, the deep-sea Alaska king crab fishery in North America was essentially created from scratch in the 1950's and, by 1964, it peaked at an annual catch of about 40 million kilograms. New equipment was developed, primarily large steel-framed crab pots and lifting gear for deep-sea fishing, but also electronic navigation equipment. Fishing vessels were built to meet the exacting demands imposed by an on-board storage tank requiring a complete water change every 20 minutes. When moving to new fishing grounds, heavy crab pots stacked on deck give the boats a high center of gravity. This makes sailing difficult in the face of the hurricane-force winds and heavy icing that occur during the peak fishing months in the Winter.


The two main types of crabs are: (1) typical shore crabs with short legs and a carapace flattened from above (Originals 4 and 5), and (2) deep-water crabs with small bodies, long legs and a spider- like appearance (Original 6). The anomuran spider-like crabs such as P. camtschatica may be readily distinguished because they have a total of only four pairs of large legs. All the other crabs have five pairs of large legs.

P. camtschatica, the Alaska king crab, is caught in heavy steel-framed rectangular pots in the deep, cold waters of the north Pacific. The commercial fishing grounds extend from Japan, past the Aleutians and the Bering Sea, and down as far as northern British Columbia. Alaska king crabs exhibit quite a range in colouration, from brownish-red or purple-red to greenish-white. The males grow larger than the females and may reach a carapace width of 28 cm and a weight of 11 kg. Crabs with a carapace width less than 18 cm are returned to the sea. Typical meat yields for the Alaska king crab range from 20 to 25% of the live weight, with the leg meat being by far the most valuable.

Chionoecetes opilio (Original 6) is a true brachyuran spider crab caught in baited pots on muddy or sandy sea floors at a depth of from 75 to 450 m. It is caught over a wide geographical range in the cold waters around north America and is one of the most important species of crab caught off eastern Canada. Together with other similar species (C. bairdi, C. tanneri, and C. angulatus) this important type of spider crab is usually sold as snow crab. Only the males are harvested, and these may grow to a carapace width of about 13 cm and a weight of about 0.7 kg (15 to 20% of which is meat). The market for snow crab (originally called queen crab) was developed by the Alaskan crab fishery when king crabs became scarce due to initial overfishing. Sodium hexametaphosphate at 0.15 to 0.25% of total volume may be used to prevent struvite crystals forming in the canned product. Citric or comparable acids at 0.1% inhibit ® blue discoloration, aimimg for a final pH of 6.85. Variation in the raw product is important, with molting crabs with paper shells giving a high pH (> pH 7.6) after processing unless corrected. A variety of methods have been developed to avoid using acid or bisulfite to prevent blue discoloration.

Maia squinado (Original 6) is another brachyuran spider crab and is the species that dominates the European market for spiny crabs or spider crabs, particularly in France as araignee de mer. Like other spider crabs, Maia squinado uses its spines to support a camouflage network of algae and detritus. The species occurs in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. In some areas it is purposefully fished, usually over sandy or detritus-littered sea bottoms, but in other areas it is caught accidentally in lobster pots. It is usually reddish in colour and may grow to a considerable size (to a carapace width of about 20 cm).

Shore crabs


The market for typical shore crabs is rather unbalanced in the number of species involved. One species, Cancer pagurus, (Original 4) dominates almost the whole domestic market in Britain and the rest of Europe while, on the other side of the Atlantic, the east coast of north America provides a profusion of different species for the domestic market. There are major fisheries for C. pagurus off north-east and south-west England, Norway and France, with secondary centers off Ireland, Portugal and Spain. The European edible crab is usually caught in baited pots, but individual animals are often captured on the seashore at low tide. The pinkish-brown carapace has nine blunt projections on each side of the eyes and may reach a width of about 24 cm, although most of the catch is composed of smaller individuals. C. pagurus has a relatively high meat yield that may reach 30% of live weight in males, depending on the relative size of the claws. A traditional method for preparing dressed crab is to extract the muscles of the legs and to serve them mixed with fragments of digestive gland (hepato-pancreas) in the bowl-like inverted carapace.

Callinectes sapidus (Original 5) is probably the most well known traditional crab of the east coast of the United States. It is called the blue crab, although the upper part of its carapace has a distinctly greenish appearance. The carapace grows to a maximum width of about 20 cm, but this includes the conspicuous lateral horns that are the distinctive feature of the species. Another diagnostic feature is that the hindmost large leg forms a paddle for active swimming. Unlike many species of crab, the meat from the relatively slender claws is less highly valued than what is called the backfin lump - really the equivalent of a liver pate formed from the hepato-pancreas. This explains why the species is often sold as soft-shelled crab immediately after moulting. After moulting, striated muscles swell to their new size by absorbing water and their characteristic taste and texture is lost for a while. This poses a serious loss in species that are valued primarily for their myosystems, but not in the meat of the dressed blue crab which is dominated by hepato-pancreas.

Menippe mercenaria, the southern stone crab (Original 5), is caught off South Carolina and Texas and provides a striking contrast to the blue crab since it normally has massive black-tipped claws which are valued for the myosystem that they contain. The other legs have pointed tips which are used to wedge the crab into mud holes or rock crevices that it then defends fiercely with its large claws. The carapace grows to a width of about 12 cm and is coloured grey. Between these two extreme types, the blue crab and the southern stone crab, are species with an intermediate form such as the rock crab, Cancer irroratus (Original 5). Rock crabs may be caught with nets, dredges or traps, depending on whether the sea bed ir rocky or sandy. Their geographical range is from Labrador down to Florida. The yellowish carapace is dotted with brown, it has nine blunt teeth on each side, and may reach a width of about 11 cm. About 45 crabs are needed to collect a kilogram of meat.


The Jonah crab, Cancer borealis (Original 5), is a similar species to the rock crab but it has a more northerly distribution (from Long Island to Nova Scotia). The Jonah crab may be distinguished from the rock crab since it has sharper teeth on the sides of its carapace. The Jonah crab is also a more massive animal and may reach a weight of 1 kg, although the crabs caught near to shore are usually half this weight. Initially an uninvited visitor in lobster pots, there is a developing market for Jonah crabs, although their more massive exoskeleton makes meat extraction rather difficult. Another developable species is the deep-sea red crab, Geryon quinquedens (Original 4). These crabs inhabit sandy or muddy bottoms on the continental shelf from Nova Scotia to Brazil at a depth of from 300 to 900 m. Because of its rather long legs, G. quinquedens is a fragile crab that is better preserved by being enticed into a baited pot rather than by being trawled, although trawling is the easier method of fishing. Males with a carapace width of 15 cm may weigh about 1 kg. Females only reach half this weight.


On the west coast of north America from the Aleutian Islands down to California, is the dungeness crab, Cancer magister (Original 4). There is an established fishery with a range of fresh and processed products. It is distinguished from the red rock crab, C. productus (Original 4) by relatively slender, light-colored fingers to its claws. In India, Scylla serrata is available in large quantities throughout the year.


References: Wilder, (1966), Gangal and Magar (1967), Motohiro and Inoue (1970), Varga et al. (1971), Gillies (1971), Dewar et al. (1972), Holmsen and McAllister (1974), Dassow and Learson (1976), Bigford (1979), Edwards (1979), FAO (1981), Ke et al. (1981), Butler (1988), Bailey and Jamieson (190).








A crustacean of Palinurus sp. ® Lobster.




In ® North American beef cutting, a cross-cut chuck would be the chuck + brisket + shank shown in Original 63.






Crustaceans such as shrimps, crabs and lobsters originate from traditional fisheries supplying local markets in non-industrialized communities, as well as technically sophisticated industries producing a wide range of fresh-frozen and processed luxury foods. The most uniformly distributed crustacean fishery is for shrimps and, on some coastlines, such as around India and northern Australia, shrimps are the dominant crustacean catch. There are well developed fisheries for crabs from the South China Sea, through the Sea of Japan and round to Alaska and British Columbia, and encircling the Atlantic from the Gulf of Mexico, along the East coast of the United States and Canada, as well as Europe. The dominant lobster fisheries are along the SAtlantic coast of Europe, off Australia and Brazil, along the US East coast, and north of the Cape of Good Hope.




Shrimps, lobsters, crabs, crayfish and krill are all crustaceans, one class of a familiar phylum of animals called Arthropods which includes the insects and spiders. The name arthropod means joint-footed, although the designation joint-legged might have been more appropriate. In practical terms, this means that food myosystems derived from crustaceans are obtained from the internal muscles that operate parts of the exoskeleton (Original 1). The exoskeleton is composed of calcium carbonate and N-acetyglucosamines, frequently colored by carotenoid pigments. Some parts of the exoskeleton are repeated serially along the length of the animal as, for example, in the segments of a lobster tail. The serial repetition of body segments, each with its own set of vital organs, is called metameric segmentation. In the Crustacea, however, the body segments are modified into groups that share a common function. Each group is called a tagma (plural, tagmata).




The relatively large crustaceans used as human food are in the subclass Malacostraca. Most adult Malacostracans have a head composed of five segments with antennae and mouth parts, a thorax of eight segments with accessory mouthparts (3 pairs) and legs (5 pairs), and an abdomen of six segments with small legs followed by a tail-fan or telson. Food myosystems are derived primarily from the thoracic legs used for walking or as grasping claws, and from the strong abdominal muscles that flap the telson downwards when the animal shoots backwards when startled. The animals that provide these myosystems are mostly members of a division of crustaceans called the Eucarida, all of which have a complete carapace or shell fused to the thoracic segments. There are five main orders in the Eucarida.


1. Order Euphausiacea. This contains the planktonic krill. These small (2 to 5 cm) shrimp-like crustaceans are harvested by Russian ships in the Antarctic.


2. Order Decapoda, suborder Macrura-Natantia. This contains shrimps and prawns with laterally compressed bodies and with legs adapted for swimming.


3. Order Decapoda, suborder Macrura-Reptantia. This contains the lobsters and crayfishes with strong abdominal segments and five thoracic legs adapted for grasping and/or walking.


4. Order Decapoda, suborder Anomura. This contains the Alaska king crab and similar species with reduced abdominal segments held under the carapace. The fifth pair of legs is greatly reduced in size so there are only four large pairs of legs adapted for walking and grasping.


5. Order Decapoda, suborder Brachyura. This includes the typical edible crabs with a vertically compressed body, a vestigial abdomen held tightly under the carapace, and large claws on the first of the five pairs of walking legs.


All the animals listed above are Malacostracans (with a 5:8:6 pattern of segments) and Eucaridans (with a complete carapace fused to all 8 thoracic segments). However, one other type of Malacostracan also yields a food myosystem, although of minor importance. The Hoplocarida have an incomplete carapace that only covers the front of the thorax. On the second pair of limbs there are large claws resembling those of a praying mantis, hence the common name for these animals - the mantis shrimps, Squilla empusa of the US East coast and S. mantis in Europe.




There are probably as many detailed ways to process crustacean myosystems as there are methods to catch crustaceans, but certain operations and the sequences in which they are performed are fairly ubiquitous. First the catch must be sorted so that a mass of the same or similar species can be assembled. All too often the rejected animals are dumped overboard despite the fact that much of their protein content could be salvaged for animal feed or some other low-grade type of product. With crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters it is essential that dead or moribund animals should be rejected. After the catch is sorted, some type of butchering is usually required for species that are to be completely processed and packaged for a period of storage. With crabs, for example, species which provide only a myosystem without any hepatopancreas are normally split open in the dorsal midline so that the shoulder meat is separated in a skeletal unit together with the leg meat.

The details of cooking procedures depend largely on the nature of the species involved. After being boiled, crabs may be chilled in cold water. This causes the meat to shrink, making its subsequent separation easier. There are a number of techniques for isolating the meat from crustacean exoskeletons, but the basic mechanical operations consist of: (1) compression rollers that force the meat out of tubular parts of the exoskeleton, (2) blowing with compressed air, and (3) shaking. The separation of shell debris, gill tissue and fat is often facilitated by a couple of minutes of floatation in brine with a high (> 90%) salinity. Ultraviolet light may be used to detect pieces of the carapace or shell remaining with the separated meat.


Before methods were developed for the preservation of lobster meat in top-quality condition by rapid freezing, the preparation of lobster paste was one of the few ways for preservation and distribution, and lobster and crab pastes are still commercially important. The yield of boiled lobster is approximately 25% claws, 30% tail, 43% body, and 2% juice. The hepatopancreas is easily reduced to a smooth oily paste by cooking. Although the taste is very palatable, the colour may remain an unattractive green. The roe (immature eggs) of the female lobster may be waxy and crumble into separate eggs with a bright red colour and a good flavour. The fat content is approximately 12%. When extracted with rollers, the eight pairs of walking legs yield long thin strips of white meat covered with red skin. The yield of leg meat from boiled lobster may only be 3% by weight. The body meat is composed of rings of muscle attached to the body from where the tail is removed, and it is covered by the paper shell with an intense red colouration. The yield of body meat from boiled lobster is about 2.5%. The muscles that operated the legs and claws from within the body cavity are not easily extractable because they are enclosed in the rigid internal compartments of the exoskeleton. The yield is around 2.5%.

The preservation of top-quality crustacean myosystems by freezing was started in the late 1950's. The problems encountered with early methods included toughening of the meat, the development of off-flavours, and the difficulty of separating the meat from the shell after thawing and cooking. Lobsters immersed in water at 90° C for 70 seconds may be easily shucked, before or after freezing. After being packed and frozen in a 2% to 3% salt brine solution, the flavour may be acceptable for several months. The acceptable storage time of claw meat is much less than that of tail meat. Because of the small size of crustaceans such as shrimps and the relatively inaccessible location of many of the smaller muscles in the larger crustaceans, the automated recovery of crustacean myosystems has demanded considerable ingenuity by the designers of seafood processing equipment.



Myosystem structure


Crustacean muscle fibers show a great range in diameter, up to 5 mm in the giant barnacle. By vertebrate standards, the range in sarcomere length also is vast, from 2 um to 14 um. The logarithm of twitch duration may be correlated with sarcomere length, and sarcomere length may follow gradients along the limbs. Long sarcomeres may be near the body in crabs, while short sarcomeres may be near the body in lobsters. The plasma membranes of crustacean muscle fibers have a large number of clefts, into which open transverse tubules for excitation-contraction coupling. Thus, gross electrical capacitance of crustacean myostems may be very high (30 uF/cm2 membrane) relative to vertebrate muscle.


Slow (tonic) muscle fibers tend to have wide, irregular Z lines, numerous intermyofibrillar glycogen granules and subsarcolemmal mitochondria, a high ratio of thin to thick myofilaments (up to 7:1), low amounts of sarcoplasmic reticulum, and H bands and M lines may be indistinct or absent. T tubules may traverse the sarcomere at its midlength, level with the H zone, or at the A-I junction, while extra tubules (Z tubules) may traverse at the Z line (but not in fast fibers). Fast (phasic) fibers, on the other hand, have a more compact internal structure with thick and thin myofilaments in a hexagonal array (six thin around one thick), short sarcomeres, and extensive sarcioplasmic reticulum. Differences between fast and slow muscle fibers are reflected in histochemical tests for ATPase and aerobic enzyme activity (strong ATPase and weak aerobic acitivity in fast fibers, and vice versa). Whereas the histochemical properties of vertebrate muscle fibers are influenced by trophic effects from the motor innervation, this control is far less important in crustacean muscle fibers, where control of msucle fiber diameter appears to originate from the degree of passive tension on the fiber. Thus, a tonic neuron may innervate both phasic and tonic muscle fibers.


Although toughening may be a problem with myosystems from larger crustacea, a loss of initial structural integrity seems to be the major problem with myosystems from smaller crustacea. Thus, frozen products readily become stringy or mushy. The basic cause is most likely biological, in that crustacean muscles are protected by a strong exoskeleton and operate in a weightless, aquatic environment. Thus, apart from ® apodemes, they appear to lack most of the connective tissues above the level of the endomysium that protect and bind together muscle fibers of animals exposed to gravity and limitless possibilities for muscle damage by bruising. To protect veretebrate muscles from overextension, there are strong internal connective tissues in parallel with the muscle fibers. Whereas, in crustcea, overextension is limited by the hinge-joint structure of the exoskeleton.


Although many crustacean muscles contain a high glycogen concentration when alive, none survives post mortem metabolism. Thus, for shrimp, a typical proximate analysis may be: water, 78%; ash, 0.5%; crude protein, 20%; and carbohydrate, 0%. Cholesterol is the dominant steroid, and originates from dietary sources.




Ross (1927), Getchell and Highlands (1957), Peachey (1967), Fahrenbach (1967), Selverston (1967), Gillies (1971), Atwood (1973), Bittner (1973), Morin and McLaughlin (1973), Boone and Bittner (1974), Giddings and Hill (1976), Govind et al. (1978), Rossner and Sherman (1978), Ogonowski and Lang (1979), Moore and Eitenmiller (1980), Chapple (1982), Wagener (1989).




Quebec, ® hip of beef.




A cod-like bony fish of northern seas, Brosme, ® Gadiformes.




This extensive muscle is located under the hide in beef, pork and lamb, functioning to twitch the skin. It forms the conspicuous area of red muscle seen on a side of beef (cutaneous trunci), with a smaller anterior patch on the shoulder (cutaneous omobrachialis). Muscle fiber hyperplasia in double-muscle cattle causes finger-like thickenings which often can be seen under the hide in live animals. In pork, the cutaneous muscle has two layers crossing obliquely.




This order of bony fish contains the carp family (Cyprinidae) and the catfishes (Siluroidei). The family Cyprinidae includes large numbers of different species of carp, distinguished by carrying their teeth on pharyngeal bones instead of on the jaws. Adult carp are often bottom feeders able to tolerate warm water (15 to 30° C) and very low levels of oxygen, features that are advantageous in some types of aquaculture. The fry feed on zooplankton but later become able to digest vegetable matter.


For centuries, European and Asian carps, Cyprinus (Original 10), have been bred as a food fish for aquaculture. Currently, the major producers are Russia, China, Japan and other Asia countries. The Crucian carp, Carassius, includes important food fishes, plus a well known domestic pet, the goldfish.


Catfishes are distributed through quite a few zoological families. The European catfish is Silurus, while the north American is Ictalurus. Most catfish are naked and lack any well developed scales. Many have several pairs of barbels around the mouth. Some have a spine on the leading edge of their fins, and a few catfish have poisonous spines. Catfish are relatively easy to rear in captivity because they tolerate warm water with a low oxygen concentration. Their skeletal musculature contains few bones. In a typical catfish processing operation the fishes are brought live to the plant. After being drained in a steel mesh basket, they are electrically stunned and skinned. The fish then are decapitated, eviscerated, washed, wrapped, and frozen. Mechanical skinning is possible after fish have been scalded. The carcass yield is about 50% for hand-dressed fishes, with final meat yields of 43% by mechanical deboning and 40% by hand. The average composition of catfish muscle is 75% water, 4% fat, 1% ash, and 20% protein. The muscle protein has an emulsifying capacity similar to that of pork and beef lean. The myosystem can be isolated mechanically from the skin and bones by the shearing action between a belt conveyer and a drum rotating at a different speed.


References: Tamura (1961), Thomas (1971).




A medium-sized flatfish, ® Pleuornectiformes




A small, two-headed muscle on the lateral surface of the mammalian shoulder (Original 24), although undivided in pork. The acromial head originates from the acromion process, while the scapular head originates from the posterior border of the scapula. Both are attached to the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus. In pork, the muscle originates from the aponeurosis over the infraspinatus and is inserted onto the deltoid ridge of the humerus.




A primal cut of beef in ® North America, essentially the ® hip + the ® sirloin tip from the ® sirloin.





A small shark-like cartilagenous fish, ® Chrondrichthyes.




A literary salmonid of the northern Pacific, named after a colorful coquette in Barnaby Rudge by Dickens, Salvelinus malma ® Salmoniformes.




A clawed lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, (® Lobster, Original 3).




® Manatee




Pacific shore crab of the US and Canada, Cancer magister, ® Crabs.



An elongated teleost fish, ® Anguilliformes.




The international ban on the ivory trade has helped preserve the African elephant (Loxodonta africana, order Proboscidea) to some extent, although numbers are still decreasing. However, in Kruger Park, Soth Africa, numbers sometimes reach a point where culling is performed and the meat is canned. Birth control and translocation would be preferable, but have their own risks and complications.


Reference: Chadwick (1996).




The muscle mass above the horizontal connective tissue septum in the musculature of a fish (® Myomere).




In ® North American beef cutting, the eye of the round is the ® semitendinosus muscle from the ® outside or bottom round.




Small forelimb muscle ® Abductor pollicis longus.




A medium-sized muscle located anteriorly and medially on the mammalian fore shank. It originates from the lateral condyloid crest and coronoid fossa of the humerus and its metacarpal insertion is lost in a dressed beef carcass.




Somewhat of a trick muscle in the mammalian fore shank: morphologically it is an extensor, but it may function as a flexor. In a dressed beef carcass, only the origin on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus survives, and the insertion to the accessory carpal bone is severed.




A small muscle of the hind shank in beef and lamb, but larger in pork. It originates on the tibial tarsal bone.




One of the major forelimb extensors, located laterally. Two fleshy parts usually may be seen laterally in a cross section of a beef shank (extensor digitorum communis = extensor digitii tertii proprius) and extensor digitorum medialis) while, in pork, five parts may appear (to digits II, II + III, V + VI, IV, and V). There is considerable confusion between authors about this muscle, which is not worth any effort on our part because, in beef, the muscle ends up in hamburger or beef shank slices where its identitiy is thoroughly lost.




In the mammalian fore limb, a muscle originating with separate heads on the ulna and radius and inserting onto the third and fourth digits. The muscle belly is central and lateral in the fore shank. In the hind limb, it is located laterally from the stifle to the hock.




One of the mammalian hind shank muscles, originating from the extensor fossa of the femus and subdivided into several parts to the third and fourth digits.




An oily Pacific salmonid, Thaleichthyes, ® Salmoniformes.




A ® shrimp tail with the shell removed from all the abdominal segments except the last, thus leaving the fan or telson as a finger hold.




A thick sheet of connective tissue over the muscles of the mammalian hind limb that pull on the patella.




Individual muscle fibers of a variety of animals show a physiological specialization for either fast or slow contraction. In many of the invertebrates and lower vertebrates, slow fibers are neurally activated via a relatively slow, progressives change in membrane resting potential along the muscle fiber, whereas fast fibers may be activated by a rapid, self-propograting action potential. In the higher vertebrates (birds and mammals), nearly all muscle fibers are activated by action potentials, but still with a range from fast to slow. Slow fibers generally have features appropriate to the sustainable utilisation of blood-borne energy sources, such as: (1) a large contact area with numerous capillaries; (2) a high concentration of myoglobin to facilitate the inward transport of oxgen; (3) numerous large mitochondria, especially under the plamamembrane; (4) evenly distributed myofibrils with a relatively small cross-sectional area separated by abundant sarcoplasm (Fibrillenstruktur pattern); and (5) a short-term reserve supply of stored energy in the form of lipid droplets. Fast fibers, on the other hand, generally have myofibrils with a relatively large cross-sectional area clumped together (Felderstruktur pattern) and exhibit features more suited to the anaerobic utilization of stored glycogen granules, such as numerous glycogen granules high levels of phosphorylase, and they lack the aerobic features of red fibers. Slow (red) fibers have a slow isoenzyme of myosin, while fast (white) fibers have a fast form. However, appreciable numbers of fibers may show an intermediate condition where a fast contraction speed and fast myosin isoenzyme are combined with both the aerobic features of slow (red) fibers and the anaerobic features of fast (white) muscle fibers. Thus, these intermediate fibers contract rapidly, and may use either aerobic or anaerobic energy sources.




In ® North America, steaks of beef psoas major and minor.




A lightly salted, split, and cold-soaked ® haddock. Originally a Findon haddock, named from Findon, just south of Aberdeen on the east coast of Scotland.




Divided into cartilagenous fish such as sharks, skates and rays (® Chondrichthyes) and bony fish (® Osteichthyes).




Quebec, ® flank of beef.




® Pleuronectiformes.




® Flitch.




A medial muscle of the mammalian fore shank, originating on the medial condyle of the humerus and inserting onto the third metacarpal bone.




A medial, posterior muscle of the mammalian fore shank. Its ulnar head originates from the olecranon, while the humeral head originates from the epicondyle of the humerus. The muscle is inserted on the accessory carpal bone. The ulnar head may be absent in pork.




Part of ® flexor digitorum profundus in the hind limb.





In the mammalian fore shank, a three-headed muscle with origins on the humerus, radius and ulna, and insertions on third and fourth digits. Together, the three heads (humeral, radial and ulnar) are quite substantial (> 0.6% total muscle weight). In the hind shank, the corresponding muscle also has three heads with common insertions on third and fourth digits: tibialis caudalis from the lateral tibial condyle, flexor hallucis longus from the lateral part of the tibia, and flexor digitorum longus from a ridge on the posterior part of the tibia.




In the mammalian fore shank, this muscles has two parts (superficial and deep). It originates from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and inserts onto third and fourth digits. In the hind limb is another muscle with the same name. It is quite a large muscle (» 0.4% total muscle weight) with an origin from the supracondyloid fossa of the femur and insertions to third and fourth digits.




Part of ® flexor digitorum profundus in the hind limb.




Something cut from the side of an animal, such as a flitch of side bacon, of whalemeat, or of halibut.




A medium-sized flatfish, ® Pleuronectiformes.




A ® North American cut of beef in which the ® tip from a ® diamond round or ® hip is boned and ® rolled. It usually contains some portion of ® rectus femoris and one of the ® vastus muscles.




For muscle foods, fresh implies simply that the product in question has not been frozen, cured, processed, or cooked. It has no connotations relating to the time lapse post-mortem. Thus, fresh beef is best after aging or conditioning for a few weeks in a meat cooler. Fresh frozen does, however, imply a short delay between slaughter or capture and freezing.




Cod-like bony fish of the families Gadidae and Merluciidae (Original 11) are the second most important source of fish myosystems after the Clupeiformes. The cod fishery is an ancient but abused industry. Cod and their relatives are demersal (bottom-living) and have three dorsal fins and two anal fins. Many have a sensory barbel on the lower lip. Adults feed on other fish and their spawn.


Gadus morhua, the Atlantic cod (Original 11), is or was of major economic importance on both sides of the Atlantic, usually weighing > 2 kg. When cooked, the myosystem separates easily into large, moist, white flakes. Pacific cod, G. macrocephalus, is extensively fished by Asian countries, being processed to filets and fish fingers aboard factory ships. Melanogrammus, the haddock (Original 11), distingusihed by its black, thumb-shaped blotch on the side of the body behind the head, produces a fine white myosystem that may be consumed fresh, or lightly salted and smoked. The typical weight is from 0.5 to 1.8 kg. Pollachius, the pollock (Original 11), usually weighs up to 6 kg and is sold fresh, frozen or dried. P. virens is the Boston bluefish, although it is greenish in color. It has a deep body with a firm, white myosystem. Apart from its green color, it may be distinguished from cod by its forked tail, pointed snout, projecting lower jaw, and reduced or absent chin barbel. Brosme, the cusk, has continuous dorsal, caudal and anal fins, and considerable variation in color, from red to brown to yellow. Cooked cusk is similar to cod.


Merluccius, the hake (Original 11), is in a separate family, the Merluciidae. The myosystem of the silver hake (M. bilinearis) rapidly softens post mortem and the fillets are best cooked directly from the frozen state. For M. merluccius, the proximate analysis is water, 79.04%; total nitrogen, 2.9%; ash, 1.31%; lipid, 2.24%; and non-protein nitrogen, 0.304%. Seasonal variation occurs in composition. The white hake, Urophycis tenuis, and very similar red hake, U. chuss, both have a high, triangular first dorsal fin, followed by a continuous second dorsal fin extending to just before the tail fin.


Also classified within the Gadiformes are the grenadiers or rattails (family Melanoididae). They are have worldwide distribution as bottom-dwellers. The head is large but, after that, the body weirdly tapers down to nothing. Despite its odd shape, Macrourus rupestris, the roundnose grenadier, can be filleted to obtain a myostem like that of cod, but sweeter. The livers are used as a source of vitamin A.


References: Hardy (1959), O'Boyle (1985), Lamb and Edgell (1986), Perez-Villarreal and Howgate (1987), Markle (1989), Atkinson (1993), Bishop (1993), McGlade (1993).




A large muscle of the mammalian hind limb (> 2% total muscle weight) contributing to the Achilles tendon at the hock, from which beef carcasses traditionally are suspended (Original 25). Unlike the human calf muscle, which protrudes from the back of the leg, behind the shin, the gastrocnemius muscle in beef, pork and lamb is covered by other muscles from the upper part of the hind limb. The gastrocnemius has two large heads, medial and lateral, both originating proximally on the posterior part of the femur.




A ball or cake of comminuted fish muscle with spices.




A small, thin, triangular muscle in the mammalian pelvic girdle, posterior to the distal part of the femur (Original 26).




A frozen product, quickly dipped in water and re-frozen to create a surface layer of ice to prevent freezer burn.




® Gluteus




A deep muscle in the mammalian pelvic girdle, lateral to the ilium from which it originates. It inserts on the head of the femur.




A major muscle of the mammalian pelvic girdle (» 3.8% total muscle weight). It originates from much of the lateral surface of ilium and inserts onto the greater trochanter of the femur (Original 27).




A medium-sized muscle (> 1% total muscle weight) located over the mammalian hip joint and under the ® gluteus medius. It originates from the ilium and associated ligaments and inserts onto the femur (Original 28).




An expansive, thin muscle on the medial surface of the mammalian hind limb (Original 29). Its origins on the subpelvic ligament and prepubic tendons do not survive splitting of the carcass into right and left sides. Distally, it tapers to a fascia over the stifle joint.




Pollachius virens, more a pollock than a cod, although with three dorsal fins and two anal fins just like the cod, ® Gadiformes.




A serranoid bony fish, ® Perciformes.




A bony fish with spines and a mailed head, ® Scorpaeniformes.




A small cod-like fish of the north Atlantic, Melanogrammus, ® Gadiformes.




A cod-like fish, Merluccius, ® Gadiformes.




A large flatfish, ® Pleuronectiformes.




In ® North American beef cutting, the heel of the round is the posterior part of the ® shank cut from a ® hip of beef (Original 68). The most characteristic muscle is a horseshoe of ® gastrocnemius, surrounded by the distal extremities of ® biceps femoris (lateral), ® semitendinosus (posterior), and ® semimembranosus and ® gracilis (medial). In heel slices taken level with the femur-tibia joint other muscles appear. Between the gastrocnemius and the femur may appear ® flexor digitorum superficialis and ® popliteus.





A pelagic bony fish, such as Clupea harengus, ® Clupeiformes.




A primal cut of beef in ® North America (Original 66), essentially the same as a Chicago round. It may be broken into shank, round, rump and sirloin tip.




Part of the ® gastocnemius muscle in the ® heel of a beef round.




A tuna-like bony fish of the family Carangidae, ® Perciformes.




The muscle mass below the horizontal connective tissue septum in the musculature of a fish (® Myomere).




A medium-sized, rounded muscle ventral to the ilium in mammals, where it contributes tender meat to an expensive part of the carcass. It originates mainly from the ilium, and inserts onto the trochanter minor and neck of the femur. It joins up with the posterior part of the psoas major to form a compound muscle, the iliopsoas.




A long, thin, segmented muscle located dorsally over the mammalian ribcage.




A major muscle (» 2% total muscle weight) filling the infraspinous fossa of the scapula in mammals (Original 30). It has a strong round tendon inserting on the lateral tuberosity of the humerus.




In ® North American beef cutting, the inside or top round is from the medial face of the hindlimb and is dominated by ® adductor and ® semimembranosus.




In the mammalian ribcage, the spaces between adjacent ribs are filled with two layers of muscle (intercostales externi and interni) which both act to move the ribs forwards and outwards during respiratory inspiration. Together they contribute a substantial amount (> 2.5% total muscle weight) of meat to the carcass, much of which is in premium cuts, such as ribs of beef and North American spareribs of pork.




These are a series of small muscles acting between the transverse processes of vertebrae when the mammalian vertebral column is fixed in shape or flexed laterally. The intertransversales caudae are in the tail, posterior to the last sacral vertebra, the intertransversales cervicis and intertranversarius longus are in the neck, and the intertransversales lumborum are in the lumbar region.




In bull, ram and boar, this muscle inserted in the penis pulls it anteriorly. The origin of the muscle is on the sciatic tuber of the ischium, and a severed cross section of the ischiocavernosus may be seen on sides of a carcass where its presence gives a useful clue to the sex of the carcass.



A tuna-like fish of the family Carangidae, ® Perciformes.




Atherinopsis, the California jacksmelt, ® Mugiliformes.




Quebec, forequarter ® shank of beef.




Western Atlantic shore crab, Cancer borealis, ® Crabs.




® Gastrocnemius




From an Arabic word, indicating a cube or chunk of meat suitable for cooking on a long skewer.




A long-legged deep-sea crab, Paralithodes camtschatica, ® Crabs.




A salted, smoked herring, Clupea harengus, ® Cluipeiformes.




Synonym for the ® tip of a ® diamond round. A ® North American cut of beef composed of the three ® vastus muscles, + ® rectus femoris and some of ® tensor fascia lata.




Species of sheep

There are many different wild species and domestic breeds of sheep in five main groups, (1) the moufflon from Mediterranean countries, (2) urial from southern Russia, (3) argali from the Himalayas, (4) bighorn from Canada and eastern Russia, and (5) domestic sheep, Ovis aries. Sheep were domesticated at an early stage in the transition from nomad to settled farmer. Goats probably were domesticated before sheep, but the domestication of sheep precedes that of cattle and pigs. Numerous characteristics have been changed by domestication. Many wild types of sheep have a wool-hair mixture and, in hot climates, certain species are almost naked. Wool bearing sheep probably were derived from animals originating in cold or mountain conditions. Domestic sheep show a range from very short to very long tails, but all wild types have short tails. Some sheep deposit fat in their tails. The lop-eared characteristic is not found in wild sheep and was produced very early during domestication. A convex nose is a striking feature of many breeds of sheep and is associated with a decrease in length of the jaws, which is a common feature in many other domesticated animals such as the pig and dog. Wild sheep often bear an array of elaborately shaped horns. During domestication the number has been reduced to a single pair, or horns have been lost altogether (polled). Animals kept in arid, rocky conditions derive an advantage from long legs, while smaller sheep are better for winter housing in colder climates.


References: Zeuner (1963), Ucko and Dimbleby (1969).




A spiny lobster, Palinurus sp. ® Lobster.




A major muscle with a flat, triangular shape, located laterally on the mammalian ribcage (Original 31). Its origin is on the lumbodorsal fascia of much of the thoracic and lumbar region, + the latter ribs. It insertions include the humerus and coracoid of the scapula.




A series of very small muscles located dorsally in the intercostal spaces (Original 32).




Tendinous connective tissue in the midline of the mammalian abdomen.




From California to Alaska, Ophiodon elongatus sometimes has blue-green muscles, ® Scorpaeniformes. It is not a cod.




Lobsters are decapod crustceans of the suborder Macrura-Reptantia (® Crustacea). Around the World, there are over 150 species of Crustacea that pass as lobsters of one type or another. The clawed lobsters (Nephropidae) have greatly enlarged claws on the first pair of legs so that they provide large masses of muscle from both the claws and the abdomen or lobster tail. The spiny lobsters (Palinuridae) have simple unclawed tips on all five pairs of walking legs and their paired antennae are long and whip-like with a very stout base. Both the clawed lobsters and the spiny lobsters have stalked eyes, but the clawed lobsters have a spike-like rostrum pointing forwards from between their eyes while the spiny lobsters have a horn over each eye. The slipper lobsters (Scyllaridae) have simple walking legs and lack any rostrum between, or horns above their sunken eyes. The most noticeable feature of slipper lobsters, however, is that their carapace is flattened from above. Their antennae are also flattened.


The common clawed lobster in Britain, Homarus gammarus or vulgaris, occurs along the Atlantic coast of Europe down to the Mediterranean. It is very similar to Homarus americanus (Original 3), which is caught in baited wood-frame traps or pots along the north-west Atlantic continental shelf from Labrador down to North Carolina. Both species of lobster are scavengers that frequent rocky bottoms. A typical length is from 18 to 30 cm with a weight from 0.2 to 1 kg, although they may grow much larger. Their colour ranges from blue to red-brown. The left-right asymmetry that develops between the lighter cutter claw and the heavier crusher claw is accompanied by changes in muscle fiber histochemistry. The cutter has 81% fast and 19% slow muscle, while the crusher is all slow.

Nephrops norvegicus (Original 3) is called by names such as the Norway lobster or the Dublin Bay Prawn, although the myosystem derived from this species is best known on a menu by its Italian name - scampi. N. norvegicus occurs in the north-east Atlantic from Iceland down to Morocco, as well as through the Mediterranean to the Adriatic. It inhabits muddy sea bottoms and is commonly obtained as a by-catch from trawlers. Its colour ranges from pink to orange, and its claws often have red and white bands. The maximum length of the carapace and abdomen is about 24 cm.

Palinurus elephas or vulgaris is the European spiny lobster or crawfish caught from shallow rocky bottoms in baited pots or trammel (tangle) nets from the south-west British Isles, along the coast of north-west Africa, as far into the Mediterranean as the Adriatic. The crawfish is brown with pale markings, and only the tail is taken and immediately frozen. In France, as langouste, it may be valued more highly than lobster.

Panulirus interruptus and P. argus are the two species of spiny or rock lobsters fished commercially in the United States (note the confusing similarity in name between Palinurus and Panulirus). Panulirus interruptus is caught off South Carolina, and P. argus is caught along the east coast of Florida.


References: Costello and Lang (1979).




A ® North American cut of beef in which the ® tip from a ® diamond round or ® hip is boned and sliced. It may contain ® rectus femoris and one of the ® vastus muscles.




Part of the ® extensor digitorum longus of the mammalian hind limb.




In ® North American beef cutting, a long plate would be the brisket + the plate shown in Original 63.




Quebec, ® loin of beef.




® Longissimus capitis + ® longissimus atlantis.




® Longissimus dorsi.




A small, flat muscle attached to the atlas in the mammalian neck.




A small, tendinous muscle in the mammalian neck, originating from transverse processes of the fifth cervical to the seventh thoracic vertebrae (Original 35).




An anterior extension of ® longissimus dorsi in the mammalian neck, originating on transverse processes of the first to seventh thoracic vertebrae, and inserting on transverse processes of the third to seventh cervical vertebrae (Original 34).




Lumbar part of ® longissimus dorsi.




Thoracic part of ® longissimus dorsi.




® Iliocostalis




Although longissimi thoracis et lumborum may be a preferable name from an antomical viewpoint, the name longissimus dorsi is very well entrenched in the literature of the animal and food sciences. In the Journal of Animal Science, the name may appear shortened even further to the longissimus muscle. The longissimus dorsi, almost universally abbreviated to LD, is very large compound muscle comprising > 6% of the total muscle weight. Anteriorly, it first becomes noticable beneath the scapula, then runs back along the carcass (Original 33). Most of the LD terminates on the anterior face of the ilium. Thus, the LD forms the major eye of meat dorsal to the ribs in all of the comemrcially valuable rib steaks and roasts, as well as one of the dorsal eye of meat in all lumbar steaks.




A long, lateral muscle in the mammalian neck, widest at its most anterior position. Its origin is on the ventral parts of transverse processes of the third to seventh cervical vertebrae. Its insertion to the skull is severed when the carcass is decapitated.




This compound muscle covers the ventral surfaces of the vertebrae in the cervical region, and as far back as the fifth thoracic vertebra in sheep, and seventh thoracic vertebra in beef (Original 36). In pork, muscles from left and right sides may not meet, thus allowing the vertebrae to be seen in a hanging carcass.




Bottom-dwelling fishes of the North Atlantic in the order ® Scorpaeniformes, such as Cyclopterus lumpus. United with a circular flap of skin, the pelvic fins form a sucker by which the fish adheres to rocks or floating objects. Lumpfish roe is the main product, but the myosystem is quite edible and sometimes is smoked. Buckland thought the taste similar to that of turtle.


References: Bompas (1886), Gavaris (1985).





An Atlantic bony fish with silver belly and blue and black bars along its back, Scomber ® Perciformes.




The manatees (Trichechus sp.) and dugong (Dugong dugon) of the order Sirenia are threatened by their slow rate of breeding and disappearing habitat, but also by the high value placed on their meat. When roasted it has the taste of pork with a flavor of veal. The rate of autolysis is very slow which makes pickling possible in a tropical climate. However, the intermuscular fat may be greenish in color with a disagreeable, fishy flavor.


References: Buckland (1894), Burton (1962).




Part of the ® extensor digitorum longus of the mammalian hind limb.




A flatfish, Lepidorhombus, ® Pleuronectiformes.




A herring-like fish more often used as fertilizer than as a food myosystem, Brevoortia, ® Clupeiformes.




Although these fishes are perch-like in nature, they differ in having their pelvic fins in an abdominal position (Original 12). The family Atherinidae contains relatively primitive marine and freshwater fish without a lateral line. The mouth is small with weak teeth. Individual fishes usually are quite small (» 10 to 15 cm), but they may occur in vast schools, such as: Atherinopsis, the California jacksmelt, and Atherina, the Atlantic silverside. Chirostoma is a freshwater food fish of Mexico.




A compound muscle flexing the mammalian neck by pulling dorsal vertebral spines to the transverse processes of vertebrae. May be found anywhere from the third cervical to the second thoracic vertebra (Original 37).




A compound muscle flexing the mammalian vertebral column, and located laterally to the spinous processes of vertebrae from the neck back to the sacrum (Original 38). In rib or loin steaks or chops, sections of the multifidus dorsi are located between the spinous processes of the vertebrae and the main eye of ® longissimus dorsi meat.




Mutton is meat derived from sheep. The premium market is mostly concerned with ® lamb from younger sheep.




A partition or septum of connective tissue separating adjacent myomeres (® Myomere) in the musculature of a fish. The plural is myocommata.




About half the total body mass of many fishes is composed of skeletal muscle, depending on the locomotory ability of the species. Very active fishes such as tunas have nearly 70% muscle. In most fishes, the major locomotory muscle mass is the axial musculature, while the muscles of the paired fins act to control direction and for stabilization. However, in species such as the skates and rays, the fin musculature does have a dominant role in propulsion. A myomere is a gross, structural segment of the axial musculature of a fish (Original 18).

Fishes swim by a series of rhythmic lateral undulations, thrusting the tail against the resistance of the water behind the fish. Movement originates from myomere contraction in waves along each side of the fish, with left and right sides being out of phase. The number of myomeres is matched to the number of vertebrae, and the segmental nature of both the vertebrae and the myomeres is derived from the embryonic arrangement of blocks of somitic mesoderm. Superficially, each myomere appears to have the shape of a letter W on its side, but internal structure is more complex. The shape of the myomere is derived embryologically from an elaboration of a basic V shape, still found in primitive aquatic vertebrates such as amphioxus. Within each myomere, the muscle fibers tend to be arranged in an anterior to posterior direction. Although the most superficial fibers may appear to be parallel to the long axis of the fish, the deeper fibers are usually arranged in a more complex manner so that they subtend acute angles with respect to the long axis.


On each face of the myomere, the muscle fibers are anchored in connective tissue. The partitions or septa of connective tissue that separate the adjacent myomeres are called the myocommata (singular = myocomma). The myocommata extend inwards (medially) into the body of the fish and are attached to the vertebral column. The vertebral column provides a laterally flexible but incompressible axis that converts dominantly antero-posterior muscle fiber contraction to lateral movement. The ribs are situated within these segmental myocommata and, in some fishes, there may be many extra rib-like intermuscular bones. A major function of the ribs is to prevent excessive distortion of the shape of the myomere during contraction. The amount of myocommata collagen in fish muscle is related to the way in which the species of fish swims. Fish with greater flexibility tend to have more collagen.

The zigzag pattern of the myomeres and myocommata enhances the efficiency of propulsion and there is naturally some variation between different types of fish related to their mode of swimming. The myomere is a three-dimensional structure and, in its depth (into the body of the fish), it has a further dimension of geometrical complexity. In horizontal section, the myomere may have a parallelogram shape, but often the shape is more complex and curvilinear with the most acute angle usually being the deepest and most anterior (that is, at the center top of the "W" shape). In many fishes the points of the W-shaped myomeres are almost conical so that there are three anterior cones and two posterior cones.

A further complexity is created by the horizontal septum of connective tissue that often divides the body of the fish into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts. This usually occurs just below the tip of the forward-facing V of the myomere. The dorsal ribs (uppermost set of ribs) occur at the level of the horizontal septum. The muscle mass above the horizontal septum is called the epaxial musculature and that located below this level is called the hypaxial musculature.


References: Alexander (1969), Yoshinaka et al. (1988).




A primal cut of beef in ® North America, essentially a ® hip of beef minus its ® sirloin tip (Original 65).





Canada follows the US pattern of meat cutting but, since Canada is a bilingual country, has extra French names for meat cuts (given here in parentheses). Separation of the forequarter from the hindquarter leaves only the last rib on the hindquarter (Original 63). On a hanging side, the separation is started seven vertebral centra down from the sacral-lumbar junction plus almost the length of a half a centrum. A saw-cut is made perpendicularly through the vertebral column at this point, then continued with a knife cut that separates the forequarter from the hindquarter by cutting through the intercostal and abdominal muscles, following the curvature of the twelth rib. The forequarter may be dropped on to a table or held suspended by its own hook from a hoist. The chuck (block) is separated from the rib with a perpendicular cut through the vertebral column, level with the ® intercostal muscles between the dorsal parts of ribs 4 and 5. The rib (côte) is separated from the plate (poitrine) by an anterior to posterior cut. The chuck is separated from the brisket (point de poitrine) by a cut perpendicular to the rib 4 about 1 cm proximal to the olecranon process of the elbow. If the shank (jarret avant) is sliced, the shank knuckle slices are proximal.


Excess fat is trimmed from the hindquarter, around the pubis and over the posterior part of the abdominal muscles. Anterior to the ® rectus femoris, at a point where the ® tensor fascia lata reaches its most distal extent, a separation is started to end on rib 12, about 20 cm from the vertebral column. This detaches the flank (flanc), from primal cuts ® hip, ® sirloin and ® loin. The round (ronde) is separated from the rump (croupe) about 1 cm distal to the ischium, terminating the separation just after passing through the head of the ® femur. The rump is separated from the sirloin (surlonge) from between sacral vertebrae 4 and 5 to a point just ventral to the acetabulum of the pelvis. The sirloin is separated from the short loin (longe) with a cut perpendicular to the vertebral column, passing between lumbar vertebrae 5 and 6.


The rib cut is separated into rib steaks or standing rib roasts by cutting perpendicularly to the vertebral column. Rib-eye (faux-filet) or delmonico steaks contain sections of ® spinalis dorsi as well as ® longissimus dorsi muscles. The chuck is sliced in planes parallel to rib 4 to make blade (palette) steaks or blade pot roasts. Arm steaks, arm pot roasts or cross cut ribs (côte croisées) are sliced perpendicularly to the humerus. Brisket is sold in chunks for braising or moist cooking. The shank is cut into thick slices perpendicular to the ® radius and ® ulna. The plate may be divided into cubes of rib bone and muscle to give short ribs (bout de côtes). Muscles located ventro-laterally to the rib cage are usually rolled, tied, and cut into cylindrical cuts of plate. Abdominal muscles may be isolated from the flank as flank steaks.


The short loin steaks are sliced perpendicularly to the vertebral column. The most anterior steaks are the wing or club steaks (côte d'aloyau), and nearly all their meat is derived from the longissimus dorsi. Next are the T bone steaks (aloyau) which gain extra meat from the ® psoas major towards the posterior of the loin. The last steaks are two or three porterhouse steaks with large sections of longissimus dorsi and psoas major. In the porterhouse region at the posterior end of the short loin, the vertebrae may be removed to create New York strip steaks (longissimus dorsi) and tenderloin or filet steaks (psoas major and minor).


Sirloin steaks cut perpendicularly to the shaft of the ilium are named by the shape of the sectioned ilium: from anterior to posterior, (1) pin bone sirloin steaks with an oval section of the anterior projection of the ilium, (2) flat bone or double bone sirloin steaks with a flat section of the wing of the ilium where it joins with the wing of the sacrum, (3) round bone sirloin steaks with a round section of the slender shaft of the ilium, and (4) wedge bone sirloin steaks with a triangular cross section of the ilium near to the acetabulum. Sirloin may be sliced into rump steaks or used for roasts such as standing rump or boneless rump. The round may be used for full cut round steaks perpendicular to the femur, or cut into chunks parallel to the femur to create the inside or top round (mostly semimembranosus and adductor) and the outside or bottom round (mostly semitendinosus and biceps femoris). Sometimes semitendinosus is removed and sliced as eye of the round. The sirloin tip (pointe de surlonge) from the round includes the muscles which pull on the patella.




In preparing the primal cuts of the pork carcass, the hind foot is removed by cutting through the tuber calcis. then the front foot is removed just distally to the ulna and radius. The leg of pork is removed with a cut from between sacral vertebrae 2 and 3 towards the ® tensor fascia lata. But the line of cutting changes direction so that most of the tensor fascia lata remains on the leg. The butt and picnic are removed together as a shoulder, cutting perpendiculary to the vertebral column and starting between thoracic vertebrae 2 and 3. The butt is separated from the picnic, skimming past the ventral region of the cervical vertebrae at a tangent. This keeps the top of the picnic relatively square. The jowl is removed from the picnic with a cut following the crease lines in the skin. The remainder of the side of pork is split into the loin and belly with a cut following the curvature of the vertebral column. One end of the curve is just ventral to the ilium, the other end is just ventral to the blade of the scapula.


The loin is divided into chops: from anterior to posterior, rib chops, center loin chops, then tenderloin chops. Alternatively, the thoracic, lumbar and iliac regions may be left intact as large roasts: rib end roast, center loin roast and tenderloin end roast. The psoas muscles may be removed from the lumbar region as pork tenderloin, and the longissimus dorsi and adjacent small muscles may be removed for boned and rolled loin roast. A crown roast can be made by twisting thoracic vertebral column into a circle with ribs radiating outwards like the points of a crown. This facilitates rapid carving and distribution of portions.


In the USA, the longissimus dorsi may be cured and smoked to make Canadian Style bacon. In Canada, it used for peameal bacon and back bacon. The rib cage and its immediately adjacent muscles are removed from the belly to make spare ribs. The remaining muscles of the abdomen, together with those that insert on the ribcage, constitute the side of pork. Side of pork may be cured and smoked to make slab bacon. The picnic may be sliced to make picnic shoulder chops through the humerus, or it can be partly subdivided to make picnic shoulder roasts. Picnic shoulder roasts may be boned and rolled, or smoked and cured in a variety of ways. The butt, or Boston butt, is usually divided into a number of blade steaks cutting through the scapula from dorsal to ventral. The more anterior part then forms a butt roast. The leg may be subdivided to create, from proximal to distal, the butt end roast and the shank end roast. Alternatively, the leg may be cured and smoked to make ham. The feet, the hocks, the knuckles and the tail can be baked or cooked in liquid.




A clawed lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, (® Lobster, Original 3).




A muscle located dorso-laterally to the atlas and axis in the mammalian neck. It is well developed in beef and lamb, but poorly developed in pork.




A short, thick muscle located laterally to the atlas and axis in the mammalian neck.




A massive sheet of muscle originating from ribs 5 to 13 and thinning down to form one of the major sheets of connective tissue in the mammalian abdomen.




A thick muscle of the mammalian abdomen, stretched between the ilium, lumbar vertebrae and last rib, and connecting with the ® linea alba.




A medium-sized, fan-shaped muscle on the floor of the pelvis, passing through the obturator foramen to insert on the throchanteric fossa of the femur (Original 39). In lamb and pork the obturatorius may be divided into internal and external layers (obturatorius internus and externus).




A spiny bony fish, but not a true perch, ® Scorpaeniformes.




Eight-armed cephalopod molluscs such as Octopus vulgaris in Europe and other species around the world have long been used for culinary purposes. Small, young octopus are preferred.




® Cervicohyoideus.




® Omotransversarius.




A strap-like muscle in the mammalian neck, originating from the shoulder fascia and inserting on the atlas. Only in pork is it normally possible to make a convincing separation of this muscle from the overlying ® brachiocephalicus.




The higher bony fish or Osteichthyes are divided into two major subclasses depending on whether their fins contain fleshy lobes (Sarcopterygii) or are supported entirely by rod-like rays (Actinopterygii). The Sarcopterygii might be regarded as the the descendants of the fish that gave rise to the first amphibious land vertebrates with muscular limbs. The only surviving fish of this group are the lung fishes, which can breathe atmospheric oxygen when caught in a drought, and the most famous of the living fossils - the Coelacanth. Thus, all the familiar edible fish with a bony skeleton are in the subclass Actinopterygii and, of these, the Teleostei reign supreme. However, there are a couple of exceptions. The non-Teleost Actinopterygii include sturgeons of the order Chondrostei, and two North American fresh-water fish, the gar-pike and the bowfin, which both belong to the Holostei. Sturgeons of the genus Acipenser are bottom-living fish reaching 9 m in length. The sturgeon fisheries of Russia and Europe are economically important for sturgeon eggs or caviar, but the skeletal muscle also is a major food item.


References: Jordan (1923), Hardy 91959), Jones (1967), Royce (1972), Simms and Quin (1973), Browning (1974), Scott and Messieh (1976), Lagler (1977).




In ® North American beef cutting, the outside or bottom round is from the lateral face of the hindlimb and contains ® semitendinosus (eye of the round) and ® biceps femoris.




® Cutaneous muscle.




A small muscle deep in the mammalian hind limb. It originates on the anterior edge of the pubis and on the prepubic tendon, and inserts on the posterior face of the femur. It is located anteriorly to the ® adductor, from which it may be difficult to serparate in lean animals. In the pork ham, the pectineus is quite well developed.




In mammals, the deep pectoral muscle is the larger of the two pectoral muscles (» 3.7% total muscle weight) and has abundant connective tissue. It originates on the sternum, from the fourth sternebra to the xiphoid cartilage, and inserts onto both the scapula and humerus (Original 42). Two subdivisions of the muscle may be evident in pork, with three in lamb.




In mammals, the superficial pectoral originates on the first four sternebrae and is inserted on the distal, posterior face of the humerus (Original 43). It is less than half the weight of the ® pectoralis profundus, and is subdivided into two parts in beef, almost three parts in pork, and only one main part in lamb.




A spiny-finned freshwater fish, ® Perciformes




This order of bony fish contains a large number of food fishes in several families. Their most notable feature is generally the occurrence of spines in the first of two dorsal fins. The pelvic fins are located far forward close to the pectoral fins, sometimes even in front of the pectoral fins.


The family Serranidae includes the sea basses and groupers. They have 24 vertebrae and a maximum of three anal spines. Their scales are ctenoid (with a fringe-like edge, especially posteriorly), like most other percoid fishes. Roccus saxatilis, the north American striped bass is a large fish (sometimes > 40 kg) that spawns in fresh water. Roccus chrysops, the white bass of the Great Lakes is smaller. Paralabrax clathratus is the kelp bass of Southern California.


Perches of the family Percidae have two anal spines. The two dorsal fines may be separate or fused. The family includes the freshwater perches of the northern hemisphere. A single genus, Perca (Original 13), includes most of the important sport perches of North America and Europe. The pelvic fins are close together. Stizostedion includes the wall-eyed pike or pike-perch, while Lucioperca includes the commercial pike-perches of Europe and Russia.


The family Carangidae includes the horse-mackerels, jacks, scads and pompanos, comprising about 200 species of strong, carnivorous fish, many of which are important commercial food fishes. Trachurus, the horse mackerel, is a low grade fish that is usually smoked. Trachinotus is the pompano of the western tropical Atlantic.


Family Lutjanidae includes the brightly colored snappers of tropical and subtropical seas, such as Lutjanus, the red snapper or pargo (Original 13). Family Anarhichadidae are the wolffish distinguished by their rather large teeth. They have no pelvic fins and the body has an elongated shape with a continuous dorsal fin. The wolffish Anarrhichas is sometimes called the ocean catfish.


Families Scombridae and Thunnidae include the important mackerel and tuna (Original 14) which, together with other well known fishes such as the swordfish (Xiphius) may be included in the suborder Scombroidea. Scomber scombrus, the Atlantic mackerel, is a migratory pelagic fish which lacks a swim bladder and can change its swimming depth very rapidly. It is a plankton feeder and occurs in large schools, usually caught with drift or gill nets. The myosystem is fatty and delicious, but liable to become bitter during storage. Auxis is the frigate mackerel. Euthynnus includes the little tunas with the alternative name Katsuwonus. E. pelamis is the extremely important skipjack which can swim very rapidly for periods of time and is metabolically adapted for dealing with the lactate produced by its muscles. Sarda includes the bonitos. Thunnus includes the important large tunas that support major fishereies. The bluefin tuna, T. thynnus is the largest and reaches 800 kg. The smaller albacore, T. alalunga, is highly valued for canning because of its white myosystem. T. albacares is the yellowfin tuna, while T. obesus is the bigeye tuna. Being active predators, tuna are energetic fish, using a heat exchange mechanism to maintain their musculature at up to 10° C higher than the surrounding water. Mercury accumulation is a problem in the myostems of older, larger tuna. Bluefin tuna, highly valued for sushi or sashimi dishes is evaluated by freshness, oil content and color. To maintain freshness, carcasses are chilled in brine to a core temperature < 5° C, which may require 20 to 30 hours. After washing and inspection, carcasses are shipped in plastic line boxes packed with ice, usually en route to Tokyo.


Scombroid fish such as tuna, mackerel, bonito and saury, plus other related fishes, have high levels of histidine in their myosystems. Histidine decarboxylase from otherwise unnoticed mesophilic (> 15° C) bacterial spoilage may produce high levels of histamine. Ingestion of histamine may produce nausea, vomiting, etc., but also localized inflammatory responses such as irritation and hypotension. There is a fluorescence assay for histamines. Most scombroids are rejected at > 10 mg% histamine, while the level for anchovies is 20 mg%.


Also in the diverse order Perciformes are the families Cichlidae and Xiphiidae. Cichlids of the family Cichlidae are freshwater tropical fish found in Africa, India south-west Asia and South America. Some species are used in aquaculture. The family Xiphiidae contains only one species, the well known swordfish, Xiphius gladius. Its sword is an elongation of its upper jaw, and its skin is smooth and lacks scales. The swordfish is a large deepsea fish found on both sides of the Atlantic, and the myosystem may be sold fresh, frozen steaks or canned.


Also in the Perciformes are fishes such as the sand lance, Ammodytes, which has a well established fishery in the North Sea. This eel-like fish, also distributed across the north Atlantic, reaches a length of 37 cm and can burrow in sand intertidally.


References: Eitenmiller et al. (1982), Ahrens (1985), Clay and Hurlbut (1988), Perry et al. (1985), Scott (1993), DFO (1993).




The peroneus or peronaeus longus is a small, lateral muscle in the mammalian hind limb. It originates mainly from the lateral condyle of the tibia. In a pork carcass, the peroneus longus can be removed rapidly after slaughter for various experiments, without appreciable damage to the ham. The main part of the muscle is white, but the medial face is red. The peroneus longus lacks ® intrafascicularly terminating myofibers.




The peroneus or peronaeus tertius is the most medial and superficial muscle of the extensors group in the distal part of the mammalian hind limb. In beef and lamb it is very thin, but it is much larger in pork. It originates on the femur with tendons inserting on the first and second tarsals and third metatarsal.




Stizostedion vitreum, a major north American sport fish with a conspicuous eye (large and highly reflecting), ® Perciformes.




A large sardine, such as Sardinops, ® Clupeiformes.




An elongated, predatory freshwater fish, Esox, ® Salmoniformes.




In lamb, the piriformis is a caudal lobe of the ® gluteus accessorius. It originates from the lateral surface of the sacrosciatic ligament and inserts onto the greater trochanter of the femur.




A medium-sized flatfish, ® Pleuronectiformes




® Flexor digitorum superficialis of the hind limb.




Flatfishes in this order have many perch-like features but they undergo a metamorphosis so that the adults are asymmetrically flattened. The underside against the substrate loses its pigmentation and the eye of that side moves around to the upper side. Being bottom dwellers, the flatfish have no swim bladder. The naming of flatfish, like that of shrimps and prawns, is rather confusing. Sole are relatively thin fish of several families. Dab, flounder and plaice are medium-sized fish. Turbot are any of the largest species of families Pleuronectidae and Bothidae, while halibut are extremely large species of Pleuronectidae. As far as myosystems go, it is important to remember that flatfish fillets are easily spoiled by overcooking if they are thin.


The family Pleuronectidae are the righteye flounders. They lie on their left side and have both eyes on the right side of the body. The operculum has a free edge and the pelvic fins are symmetrical. This includes the plaice Pleuronectes, and the Atlantic halibuts, Hippoglossus, caught from great depths and weighing several hundred kilograms (Original 15). Atlantic halibut (H. hippoglossus) is a valuable fish with a firm white myosystem and a distinctive delicate flavor. H. stenolepis is found in the northern Pacific. Other species, however, may be quite small such as H. platessoides, the rough dab, so named because of its rough scales. Limanda ferruginea is the yellowtail flounder of the northwest Atlantic, sold as a filleted, frozen product. The abundant American plaice of the north-west Atlantic is Hippoglossoides platessoides, while Pseudopleuronectes americanus is the inshore winter flounder and Glyptocephalus cynoglossus is the witch flounder, with its smooth scales and copious mucus making is very slippery.


The family Bothidae includes the lefteye flounders such as Paralichthyes, the California halibut. Scophthalmus maximus, the European turbot (Original 15), has a diamond-shaped body without scales, but the upper side is covered with blunt tubercles. S. rhombus, the brill, has an oval body covered with smooth scales. The myosystem may have a relatively high triglyceride content and a relatively firm texture. It is often sold cured or smoked. Other members of the family include Lepidorhombus, the megrim; Arnoglossus, the scale fish; and Zeugopterus, the topknot.

The family Soleidae includes soles with elongated shape and both eyes on the right side of the body. Teeth are only present on the jaw of the blind side. Solea, is the sole, while Buglossidium is the solenette.


References: Bowering (1990), Zwanenburg (1990), Pitt (1989, 1990, 1993).




Quebec, ® brisket of beef.




Quebec, ® plate of beef.




Or pollock, a gadoid fish of the north Atlantic such as Pollachis, ® Gadiformes.




A warm-sea bony fish of the family Carangidae, ® Perciformes.




A small triangular muscle behind the joint between the femur and tibia in mammals.




Species of pigs


Fossil pig skeletons have been found in geological deposits dating back to the Pliocene period in Europe and Asia. Domestic pigs of Europe and North America appear to be a mixture of two original species of wild pig: Sus scrofa, the wild boar of Europe found north of the Alps, and S. vittatus, the wild pig now only found in the Malay Peninsula. Wild pigs of the same genus (Sus) but of different species to domestic pigs are found in India and Ceylon (S. cristatus). The domestic pigs now found in China are usually considered to be S. vittatus. Whether or not S. scrofa and S. vittatus should be considered as separate species is a difficult question because transitional races are now widespread, thus demonstrating the obvious point that the interbreed hybrids are fertile. The scientific distinction between S. scrofa and S. vittatus is based on the shape of the lacrimal bone in the skull (located round the orbit of the eye and supporting the tear duct from the eye to the nose). Several different subspecies of wild swine are recognised: Sus scrofa scrofa, Europe; S. s. meridionalis, Mediterranean; S. s. barbarus, North Africa; S. s. attila, Eastern Asia; and S. s. palustris, found in the archeological excavations of Swiss Neolithic lake dwellings.


Early evidence of pork consumption


In the bones heaps around the eating areas of prehistoric peoples are found the remains of three types of pigs: bones of wild pigs obtained from hunting, bones of large pigs probably put out to forage, and bones of small pigs probably kept in confined or covered areas. Remains of domesticated pigs are not found before Neolithic times (the agricultural revolution when man became a settled farmer) and, since pigs are difficult to control (they do not easily form herds like the ruminants), the nomadic farmers of earlier times probably did not have any pigs. Tribal conflict between settled farmers and warlike nomads probably explains why domestic pigs, the invention of the settled farmer, were first prohibited by some religions. Another factor is the existence of parasites such as the pork tapeworm and trichinella.


Because of their rooting habits foraging, pigs probably produced a dramatic change in the local ecology by reducing woodland undergrowth and allowing grass to grow. Before the invention of ploughing pigs may have been driven over seeded ground to embed the seeds. Pigs may be used to hunt for underground mushrooms (truffles) or to retrieve game, and these habits might have been important to primitive farmers.


Breeds of pigs


In medieval times, herded pigs had a long snout and legs. Around the year 1800, Chinese pigs were introduced into Europe and combined with Sus scrofa. This resulted in a dramatic phenotypic change as pigs became thick-set in shape, smaller in size and laid down fat earlier in life. For example, the Canadian Yorkshire breed pig is derived from a large type of Yorkshire pig (now known as the British Large White) which was developed in the later 1880s. Almost certainly, this type of pig contains genes contributed by Sus vittatus.


Early development of pig breeds was influenced by factors such as ease of taming, socially structured behaviour, numbers of offspring at relatively short intervals, early rapid growth and maturation, and longevity. In the 1800s, the ability of pigs to store large amounts of fat was considered a desirable feature since, before the widespread use of fossil fuel energy for industrial machines, working people expended large amounts of energy in their daily work. The high caloric content of fat and the high fat content of pork once provided important food energy. Nowadays, however, there is intensive selection against fatness and in favor of lean muscle development.


References: Zeuner (1963), Ucko and Dimbleby (1969).




Prawns are decapod crusteaceans of the suborder Macrura-Natantia (® Crustacea). The distinction between a prawn and a shrimp depends on the geographical context (® Shrimp).




A poorly developed muscle on the medial surface of the elbow. In pork it is fusiform, in beef very thin and, in lamb, mainly tendinous.




In mammals, this relatively large muscle (» 1.7% total muscle weight) occupies a conspicuous position ventral to the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae (Original 44). It is thin anteriorly where it starts under the last few ribs, but thickens to form a major eye of meat. It is joined by ® iliacus, and inserts onto the trochanter minor on the femur. It has a low connective tissue content and is stretched by conventional carcass suspension methods so that it is almost always the most tender muscle in a meat animal.




In mammals, the psoas minor is a long, thin muscle, located medially to the ® psoas major. Thus, it is most readily seen near the midline of the body, running ventrally to the lumbar vertebrae.




A major factor affecting the rate of post mortem autolysis in fish muscle is whether or not the fish are filleted fairly soon after capture. The pyloric caecum, a diverticulum of the intestine, may contain a high concentration of collagenases and trypsin-like enzymes. Leakage from the cecum accelereate autolysis of the musculature. Glyogenolysis usually is extremely rapid after fish are caught and they may develop rigor mortis in less than an hour. Thus, they may be frozen either before or after the onset of rigor.




In beef and lamb, this is a small, parallel-fibered muscle originating from the ventral surface of the ischium and inserting on the trochanteric ridge of the femur (Original 45). It is quite large in pork.




In beef and lamb, this is a thin muscle located laterally and ventrally on the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae (Original 46). With origins as far forward as the eleventh thoracic vertebra, the insertions extend back to a ventral tubercle on the wing of the ilium. The muscle is well developed in pork.




A group of four major muscle that pull on the patella in the mammalian hind limb (® rectus femoris, ® vastus lateralis, ® vastus medialis, and ® vastus intermedius).




Several orders of flightless birds, including the emu, cassowary and ostrich.




A group of ® North American beef primals composed of plate + chuck + brisket + shank as shown in Original 63.



A flattened, cartilagenous fish, ® Chrondrichthyes.




A major muscle of the mammalian abdominal wall (» 2% total muscle weight) strengthened by bands of connective tissue (Original 47). It originates from the sternum as far anterior as the fourth costal cartilage, and inserts on tendons and ligaments associated with the pelvis. In pork, the muscle is especially thick.




In the mammalian neck, this muscle originates on the spine of the axis and is inserted on the occipital bone of the skull. The belly of the muscle is next to the ligamentum nuchae.




Located beneath the ® rectus capitis dorsalis major in the mammalian neck, but originating on the atlas rather than the axis. In pork, this muscle is fused to the rectus capitis dorsalis major.




This is the smallest of the muscles acting around the joint between the atlas and skull in mammals.




® Longus capitis.




A small neck muscle of mammals, located ventro-laterally to the joint between the atlas and the skull.




A major muscle of the mammalian hind limb (> 2% total muscle weight). Of four large muscles that pull on the patella, this is the most anterior and centrally located (Original 48). It originates with two tendinous heads on the ilium. The muscle is clearly separated in pork but often fused with the vastus muscles in pork.




In mammals, this is a thin muscle originating on the first rib and inserting onto the lateral surfaces of the second to fifth sternebrae (Original 49). It is flat, broad, has parallel myofibers, and is located immediately below ® pectoralis profundus.




A spiny bony fish, ® Scorpaeniformes.




A perch-like bony fish, also called the pargo, of the family Lutjanidae, ® Perciformes.




This muscle retracts the last rib in the mammalian ribcage towards the origins of the muscle on the transverse processes of the first three lumbar vertebrae (Original 50).




Located deeply between the scapulae, this mammalian muscle originates on the ligamentum nuchae and the spines of the first five thoracic vertebrae. It inserts onto the costal surfaces of the scapula. In beef, it has two parts: a rounded cervical part, and a thinner thoracic part. The cervical part makes a major contribution to the hump of Bos indicus carcasses. Three parts to the muscle appear in lamb and pork.




Western Atlantic shore crab, Cancer irroratus, ® Crabs.




A bony fish, often highly colored with spines, ® Scorpaeniformes.




When cooked in batter, a type of cartilagenous fish like a small shark, ® Chrondrichthyes.




After a meat cut has been boned (i.e., its bones have been removed), it may be used to make a rolled joint. Areas of subcutaneous fat are sliced, then fused together by being beaten with a wooden mallet. A sheet of fat matching the size of the lean meat is cut, wrapped around the lean, and tied into place with white butcher's string with a slip knot secured by a half-hitch. The free ends of the string are cut short (so they do not smolder in the oven). The whole cylindrical rolled joint is cut into variable lengths. The layer of fat bastes the meat as it is roasted, and prevents the lean from drying out. The customer is able to carve the joint very easily, with a transverse cut passing across the grain of the meat to avoid stringiness.




A bony fish of the North Atlantic, with an orange-red body, black eyes, and sharp spines on the head, ® Scorpaeniformes.




In ® North American beef cutting, the round is part of the ® hip, and often is sliced perpendicularly to the femur. Although it is seldom sliced whole right across the hindlimb (full-cut round), this provides a key to indentifying muscles when the round is subdivided (Original 67). The ® gracilis is a thin sheet of muscle spread over the medial face of the hindlimb. The gracilis, together with the strap-like ® sartorius muscle anterior to the gracilis, may be used for orientation. The key decision is to decide which is medial (i.e., toward the thin gracilis) then, which is anterior (towards the sartorius). Once this has been decided, the remaining muscles of grouped around the femur may be named fairly easily. The ® quadriceps femoris muscles form a group of four large muscles that pull on the patella when the leg is extended. The ® vastus medialis is medial, the ® vastus lateralis is lateral, the ® vastus intermedius covers the anterior face of the femur, and the ® rectus femoris covers the vastus intermedius. The ® biceps femoris is a single large muscle on the lateral face of the hindlimb. In cross section, it often appears divided into two parts because it has a very deep cleft along part of its length. But the biceps femoris appears as a single muscle in cuts of meat which miss the cleft, whereas sections through the cleft make the muscle appear double. To add to the confusion, the small segment of biceps femoris cut off by the cleft is often more pale than the main part of the muscle. The ® semitendinosus and ® semimembranosus are two large muscles located on the posterior face of the hindlimb. The semimembranosus is medial to the semitendinosus. The ® adductor and ® pectineus are located in the medial part of the hindlimb, near to the femur. The pectineus is anterior to the adductor. In lean carcasses, it may be difficult to separate the adductor from the semimembranosus, and these two muscles may appear as a single muscle. Given the possibility that the biceps femoris muscle on the other side of the limb may look like two muscles, caution is needed in the identification of these muscles.




A long, thin muscle originating from the fifth and sixth lumbar vertebrae and inserting past the sacrum into the tail.




The most dorsal muscle along the mammalian tail, pulling the coccygeal vertebral spines towards the sacral spines.




A mammalian tail muscle located ventrally to the diminutive transverse processes of the coccygeal vertebrae.




A cod-like bony fish or pollock, Pollachius virens, ® Gadiformes.




A large bony fish with a pigmented myosystem, ® Salmoniformes




In this order of important bony fish, the family Salmonidae includes various types of salmon, trout, charr and whitefish. Most of them have an adipose fin between the dorsal fin and the tail (Original 16). Although they cannot tolerate water that is too warm or with a low oxygen concentration, they are able to cope with a wide range in salinity and many species are anadromous (they migrate between sea water and fresh water environments). Typically, salmonids hatch in fresh water, but may migrate to the sea to grow and mature, and then return again to fresh water to spawn. When salmon start on their return journey to spawn in fresh water, their muscles have a high oil content and a bright red color. After an exhausting journey up-river their muscles become darker and less oily. The dull skin of the sexually mature salmon is called watermarked. The family Salmonidae contains many saught-after sport fish with richly flavored muscle. Smoked salmon is an important luxury food with unusual textural properties that enable it to be thinly sliced. The color of salmonids is of great importance in marketing. The carotenoid pigment of wild salmon muscle is astaxanthin. Canthaxanthin (carophyll red) may be added to the feed of farmed fish to enhance color development, using a reflectance ratio (650/510 nm) to estimate the pigment concentration.


The Atlantic salmon is Salmo salar. The rainbow or steelhead trout is S. gairdneri, often used for aquaculture because the larvae will accept artificial food. It may be distinguished by a reddish band along the center of each side and by regular rows of black dots on its dorsal and tail fins. S. trutta, the brown trout may be distinguished by having a mixture of black spots and red, orange and yellow spots with pale borders. Oncorhyncus includes various Pacific salmon, with the five main types being chinook (O. tshawytscha, the largest, from 6.75 to 25 kg), pink (O. gorbuscha, small, » 1.8 kg), sockeye (O. nerka, its red myosystem and high oil content make it ideal for canning), chum (O. keta, has a pale myosystem with a low oil content and is sold fresh or smoked) and the coho salmon (O. kisutch, a saltwater sport fish famed for its agility). The very Russian-sounding specific names suggest, correctly, that these species are found in both western and eastern waters of the north Pacific. The genus Salvelinus includes the charr, brook trout, lake trout, and Dolly Varden (S. malma). The Arctic charr, S. alpinus has a delicious taste with attributes of both trout and salmon, and is farmed with pigment supplementation to produce a pink, carotenoid color. The brook trout, S. fontinalis may be distinguished by red spots with blue surrounding halos along its sides, black edges bordered by white along the front edges of the lower fins, and by light, wavy lines on its back. The lake trout, S. namaycush, may be distinguished by its light spots and deeply forked tail. It can grow to a very large size (47 kg). Coregonus, the whitefish, usually is found in deep, cold lakes. Fishes of the family Argentinidae look like miniature salmon. They are usually cleaned and served whole after being pan fried or deep fried, such as Mallotus, the capelin and Osmerus the smelt, with large, easily removed scales. Anadromous smelt are superior in quality to landlocked fish from the Great Lakes. Thaleichthyes, the eulachon occurs in the Pacific, and ascends rivers to the north of Oregon. It has a long dorsal fin, weak dentition and is found in very large schools. When pan-fried it has an excellent taste that rivals that of trout. The eulachon contains a large amount of oil with a high melting point, sufficiently high for used in making candles, hence an old name for this fish, the candle fish. The oil has a delicate flavor.


The family Esocidae includes sport fish such as the northern pike, Esox lucius, which is circumpolar, occurring in Europe, Asia and North America. The pike is a wolf-like predator with an elongated shape, military-style camouflage, and dorsal and anal fins far back near the tail. It has a large mouth with impressive bands of sharp teet. The myosystem is firm, white, and finely textured when cooked. Similar relatives include the muskellunge, E. masquinongy.


References: Skrede and Storebakken (1986), Ryan (1988).




An eel-like, burrowing fish of the Atlantic, Ammodytes, ® Perciformes.



A small herring-like fish such as Sardinia, ® Clupeiformes.




A long strap of muscle on the medial face of the proximal part of the mammalian hind limb (Original 52). It is not particularly large (» 0.4% of total muscle weight) but important for orientating the other muscles of the ham or beef round. Proximally, it has two heads, one originating on the tendon of ® psoas minor, and the other from the ilium. DIstally, it thins down to an insertion on the tibia and medial patellar ligament. Sartorius is an ideal muscle for the study of muscle growth in meat animals because of its relatively simple structure with parallel myofibers.




An Atlantic bony fish with a long beak, Scomberesox saurus (® Beloniformes).




A flat fish, Arnoglossus, ® Pleuronectiformes.




A thin sheet of muscle in mammals, originating from the transverse processes of the fifth to sixth cervical vertebrae and inserting on the fourth rib (Original 53).




® Scalenus ventralis.




A fan-shaped mammalian muscle, originating from the transverse processes of the third to seventh cervical vertebrae, and inserting on the manubrium and first rib (Original 54).




Many types of scallops are exploited commercially, such as the giant, Placopecten magellanicus, and Iceland scallops, Chlamys islandicus, taken in Atlantic Canada, as well as the bay, Aequipecten irradians, and calico, A. gibbus, scallops taken farther south in the Atlantic US. In Europe, the main species are the scallops Pecten maximus and P. jacobaeus. All are filter-feeding bivalve molluscs, with a lower valve flat, which is smooth and pale, hinged against an upper valve which is arched and reddish brown. Scallops can move quite energetically by sharply closing their valves and jetting out water. The single large white adductor muscle between the two valves produces a myosystem with an excellent taste and texture, best appreciated when stewed in white wine and served with mushrooms. Scallops grow slowly, normally reaching a commercial size after five to seven years. Older scallops, up to to 20 years, may occur, but have poor meat quality. Scallops are shucked as soon as they are caught by dredging.


Scallop muscle fibers are thin ribbon-like cells (1 x 10 um in cross section and 0.6 mm in length). Sarcomere lengths are highly variable, and thick myofilaments have a core of ® paramyosin. When hardness develops in cooked scallop muscle, intially it is caused by dehdration, followed by denaturation of myofibrillar proteins.


References: Findlay and Stanley (1984), Robert (1988).





Abdominal muscle from a clawed lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, (® Lobster, Original 3).




A bony fish with spiny fins, ® Scorpaeniformes.




These marine fishes have heavy body armour and often a variety of spines like perches. Many species live in rocky habitats, hence their common name, rockfish. The body armour and spines may be camouflaged. Some species have defensive poison spines and are brightly colored, hence another common name, scorpionfish. Despite this, some species are extremely highly valued for the taste of their myosystem and are the object of extensive commercial fisheres. Trigla is the gurnard. Sebastes includes the ocean perch or rosefish of the North Atlantic, with an orange-red body, black eyes, and sharp spines on the head (Original 17). It is a not usually a very large fish (0.5 to 1 kg) and may be baked or poached whole. The myosystem is firm with a distinctive flavor, and fillets are sold with or without skin. Numerous species of Sebastes and a couple of Sebastodes account for a variety of rockfish in the northern Pacific, including the yelloweye (Sebastes ruberrimus, with a low oil content), canary (Sebastes pinniger, with a high yield of firm myosystem), china (Sebastes nebulosus, with small fillets), copper (Sebastes caurinus, with flaky fillets ideal for battering and deep frying) and tiger rockfish (Sebastes nigrocinctus).


Also included in the order Scorpaeniformes are fishes of the family Cyclopteridae, such as the lumpfishes or lumpsuckers, and the family Hexagrammidae, such as the lingcod, Ophiodon elongatus. It is not a cod. Lingcod are found in shallow waters from California to Alaska, and reach a large size (to 36 kg). The musculature may be blue-green but becomes white on cooking, and the taste is rated as delicious.


Reference: Nagtegaal (1985), Lamb and Edgell (1986), Beamish and Cass (1990), McKone and LeGrow (1990).




Perchlike fish of the family Serranidae, ® Perciformes.




A major muscle (> 5% total muscle weight) of the mammalian hind limb. It originates on the ischium and has two heads, one inserting on the medial epicondyle of the femur, and the other on the tibia (Original 55). The fasciculi are large and loosely-packed.




A large, flat muscle in the dorsal neck region of mammals (> 1.5% of total muscle weight. It originates on vertebral processes from the fourth cervical to tenth thoracic vertebrae and inserts onto the occipital bone of the skull (Original 56). In pork, it is divided into dorsal (biventer cervicis) and ventral oarts (complexus).




A major fusiform muscle of the mammalian hindlimb ( 2.5% total muscle weight). It originates from the ischium and has one insertion on the tibial crest and a second to a conspicuous secondary tendon which, combined with ® gastrocnemius and superficial flexor muscles, inserts onto the tuber calcis along with the Achilles tendon (Original 57).




In mammals, a series of small muscles originating on the lumbodorsal fascia and inserting onto ribs 9 to 13, aprroximately.



In mammals, a thin muscle originating on the lumbodorsal fascia and usually inserting onto the dorsal parts of the sixth to ninth ribs (Original 58).




A large triangular muscle located laterally in the neck and thorax of mammals (Original 59). It originates on the scapula and inserts onto the transverse processes of the last four cervical vertebrae, and onto the first three ribs. The muscle is large and well developed in pork, and contributes to the hump of Bos indicus carcasses.




An important muscle of the mammalian fore quarter, where it functions as the main component of the muscular sling by which the scapula is attached to the rib cage (Original 60). It originates from the costal surface of the scapula and inserts onto the lateral surfaces of the fourth to ninth ribs. The wedges of muscle to each of the costal insertions give the muscle a serrated edge ventrally.




A north Atlantic herring-like fish with a deep body, Alosa, ® Clupeiformes.




A cartilagenous fish, ® Chrondrichthyes.




Collagen accumulation in shoulder backfat of pork from heavy boars. Slicing is difficult.


Reference: Wood et al. (1985).




Ulna and radius




In ® North American beef cutting, an alternative name for the primal cut shown as sirloin in Original 63.




In ® North American beef cutting, an alternative name for the primal cut shown as loin in Original 63.




In ® North American beef cutting, the plate shown as a primal cut in Original 63 is also a short plate, in distinction from a long plate which would be the brisket + the plate shown in Original 63.




Shrimps are decapod crusteaceans of the suborder Macrura-Natantia (® Crustacea). Many different species of shrimps are caught in commercial fisheries around the World. There may be a clear-cut distinction between shrimps and prawns in many British seaside markets, but certainly not in the rest of the World. The common brown shrimp around the British Isles is Crangon crangon and the common prawn is Palaemon serratus. The latter species is usually larger than the former and is also distinguished by its laterally compressed body and its well developed rostrum, not to mention its higher price. In Commonwealth countries where this British etymology still prevails, but where the species of Crustacea are different, a prawn might simply be any large species of shrimp. In the US and in many other countries, however, the term prawn is rarely used and, if it is used, may be used haphazardly to indicate some local species of crustacean.

Crangon crangon (Original 2) is caught in large numbers by nearly all the European countries with an Atlantic coastline. It burrows in sandy bottoms where the water is shallow (0 to 20 m) and it tolerates brackish water in estuaries. It is a translucent grey or brown in colour and reaches a length of 9 cm, although the commercial catch is usually composed of smaller individuals. Palaemon serratus, the common prawn (Original 2), also inhabits inshore waters (0 to 40 m) of a similar east Atlantic range, with both C. crangon and P. serratus extending into the Mediterranean. P. serratus is typically about 7 or 8 cm in length but may reach 11 cm.


Other species of Crangon and Palaemon are commercially important in other areas. In the north-west Atlantic, for example, the grey shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa) is fished on both marine and estuarine sandy bottoms (0 to 90 m) from Baffin Bay down to Florida. In shallow waters (1 to 10 m) of the east Atlantic, and with a range that also includes the Mediterranean, the Baltic and the Black Sea, is found the Baltic shrimp, Palaemon adspersus. With a similar geographical range but with the shoreline and rockpools as its habitat is found the rockpool prawn, Palaemon elegans.

Penaeus aztecus (Original 2) is caught in vast numbers in the west Atlantic from Masssachusetts down to Texas, and off Mexico. Although this species is generally called the brown shrimp, its colour may also be red, orange or green. It is caught on muddy or sandy bottoms, mostly between 27 and 54 m, and is often fished at night. The female grows larger than the male (maximum length 236 versus 195 mm), and a typical market length is about 5 to 16 cm.

Penaeus setiferus has a later season than P. aztecus and is caught in shallow water (2 to 9 m). It is also a west Atlantic species frequenting muddy or sandy bottoms. Fishing for this species is centered off Louisiana and Mexico. The common name for this species, the white shrimp, describes its usually translucent white appearance, but its colour may also range from grey to greenish-blue. The female grows larger than the male (maximum length 200 versus 175 mm) and the typical market length is from 5 to 15 cm. P. setiferus has very long antennae (Original 2).

Pandalus borealis is extensively fished with otter trawls over muddy or sandy bottoms at a wide range of depths (20 to 1380 m) in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Original 2). There is a very high demand for the cooked and peeled tails of this species and most of the catch is cooked soon after capture. Its pink-red colour when alive is due to countless fine red dots on a translucent background, hence one of the common names for this species - the pink shrimp. Alternate names are the deep-water or great northern prawn. The average commercial length is from 75 to 100 mm, with about 120 to 130 shrimps/kg. The female grows larger than the male (maximum length 165 versus 120 mm).

Pandalus jordani, the smooth pink shrimp of the east Pacific from Alaska to California, is a relative new-comer to the shrimp menu (Original 2). In British Columbia, fishing for this species was only commenced in the 1950's, but it is presently one of the most important commercial species of shrimp in that province. It is generally caught at depths between 70 and 230 m over sandy or muddy bottoms, and is generally larger than P. borealis. Females grow larger than males (maximum length 290 versus 210 mm). The distinction between these two species of Pandalus is best made at the point where the third abdominal segment forms a humped back to the animal. P. borealis has an upward projecting spine while P. jordani does not (Original 2).


A geographical sample of commercially important species of shrimp.


------------------------------------------------------------------ Location Species Common Name

------------------------------------------------------------------ Africa (E) Penaeus indicus White prawn Argentina Pleoticus muelleri Argentine red shrimp Australia Metapenaeus bennettae Greentail shrimp Australia Penaeus esculentus Brown tiger prawn Brazil Penaeus notialis Southern pink shrimp Brazil Penaeus schmitti Southern white shrimp British Guiana Nematopelaemon schmitti Whitebelly prawn Canada Pandalus platyceros Spot shrimp China (N) Acetes chinensis Northern mauxia shrimp India Atypopenaeus stenodactylus Periscope shrimp India (NW) Metapenaeus brevicornis Yellow shrimp India Palaemon styliferus Roshna prawn India (W) Parapenaeopsis stylifera Kiddi shrimp Japan Penaeus chinensis Fleshy prawn Japan Penaeus japonicus Kuruma prawn Mediterranean Aristeus antennatus Crevette rouge Mediterranean Parapenaeus longirostris Deepwater rose shrimp Mexico Macrobrachium carcinus Painted river prawn Mexico Penaeus californiensis Yellowleg shrimp Mexico Penaeus vannamei Whiteleg shrimp Pacific (W) Metapenaeus ensis Greasyback shrimp Pakistan Metapenaeus affinis Jinga shrimp Pakistan Penaeus penicillatus Redtail prawn Persian Gulf Penaeus merguiensis Banana prawn USA (Atlantic) Penaeus duorarum Northern pink shrimp USA(Pacific) Xiphopenaeus kroyeri Seabob -----------------------------------------------------------------


Trade terms used for shrimp include fantail (abdominal muscles retaining telson or tailfan), vein (intestine beneath the abdominal muscles) and green headless (raw, head removed, shell still in place).


References: Holthuis (1980), Butler et al. (1989).



A bony fish, such as Atherina, the Atlantic silverside, ® Mugiliformes.




Our old English word for sirloin is derived from the French surlonge (above the loin on a hanging side of beef). In ® North American beef cutting the delineation of a sirloin usually is made

by two horizontal plane in the hanging carcass. The upper or posterior plane touches the anterior, proximal tip of the femur while the lower plane touches the anterior face of the ilium, as in Original 63. But this primal cut also may be called a short hip.




A small salmonid fish, ® Salmoniformes.




A perch-like bony fish of the family Lutjanidae, ® Perciformes.




Long-legged deep-sea crabs from the western Atlantic, Chionoecetes, ® Crabs.




A small-mouthed flatfish, ® Pleuronectiformes.




In the mammalian hind limb, a small slip of muscle originating on the femur and contributing to the lateral head of ® gastrocnemius.




Female ® blue crab.




Atlantic long-legged crab, Maia squinado, ® Crabs.




® Spinales dorsi.




A compound muscle, with a long strap-like shape overall. It extends along the mammalian vertebral column from the lumbar region to the neck, where often it is immediately ventral to the ligamenutum nuchae. Subunits of the muscle originate from the dorsal spines of all the lumbar vertebrae, from the eleventh to thirteenth thoracic vertebrae, and from the tenth to fifteenth ribs. Subunits insert on the lateral surfaces of vertebrae, from the third cervical to the tenth thoracic. In many rib steaks, the spinalis dorsi forms a crescent-shaped cap to the ® longissimus dorsi.




A thin, flat muscle on the lateral surface of the mammalian neck (Original 61). It originates from a fascia connected to the dorsal spines of the anterior thoracic vertebrae, and inserts on an extensive fascia to the first four cervical vertebrae and temporal crest of the skull (which is severed). In pork, the muscle is quite thick and has a three-part insertion (oocipital, temporal and to the wing of the atlas).




A herring-like fish of the north Atlantic, such as Sprattus, ® Clupeiformes.




In ® North American beef cutting, the chuck shown in Original 63 is a square cut chuck.






Squids are cephalopod molluscs of the Subclass Coleoidae. The tentacles surrounding the head are derived from the muscular foot. The foot also gives rise to the muscular mantle and siphon which play a major role in escape response locomotion by jet propulsion. Some of the commercially important squid of the Atlantic are Loligo patagonica, in the south-west; Loligo pealei, the long-finned squid of the north-west; Loligo vulgaris, the long-finned squid of the north-east; and Illex illecebrosus, the short-finned squid of the north-west. Occurring in the Pacific are: Doryteuthis singhalensis, Gulf of Tonkin; Dosidicus gigas, the jumbo squid of California; Loligo opalescens, also caught off California; Loligo edulis, ichibansu-rume, Japan; Omastrephes sloani, suruma-ika, Japan; various species of Nototodarus or arrow squids, New Zealand; Todarodes pacificus, Japan and Russia; and Watasenia scintillans, Japan. Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Loligo edulis, and Loligo duvauceli are caught in the Indian Ocean. But hundreds of other species are taken in many other seas as well.


Myosystem and processing


The mantle contains both circular and radial muscle fibers. In Illex illecebrosus and Loligo pealei, muscle fibers are roughly triangular in cross section, with a diameter » 3.6 um . Myofibrils are obliquely striated and rectangular in cross section, and are twisted in a left-handed helix around an axial core of sarcoplasm at a contraction-dependent angle of 16 to 17° to the longitudinal axis of the fiber, with a repeat distance of 38 um. The major food myosystem prepared from squid (» 16% protein, 1 to 5% triglyceride) usually consists of strips or rings of mantle muscle, or the whole mantle can be eaten on a stick. Freshness is assessed by ® TVB or an ammonia test. The texture of mantle, which is often perceived as being too tough or resilient, is mainly determined by the degree of cooking-induced gelatinization of the inner and outer tunics of woven collagen fibers in which the radial muscles of the tunic are attached. Two types of cooking have been proposed to minimize these problems. Either cooking should be very quick, such as frying or sauteing for 2 to 3 minutes, or else prolonged, such as stewing for longer than 16 minutes. Gelatinization of the outer tunic starts at around 70° C and is continued at higher temperatures.


For Loligo pealei, the mantle layers from inside to outside have been measured at: visceral lining, 0.2 to 0.6 um; inner tunic, 5 to 10 um; muscle layer, 98% mantle thickness; outer tunic, 20 to 35 um; and outer lining, 5 to 10 um. Automated processing may exploit friction to drag the tentacles behind the mantle, thus establishing orientation for the automated excision of the eye-bearing region of the head to separate tentacles from mantle. The mantle then may be forced on to a peg with water jets that eviscerate the hollow mantle. In the Atlantic, Loligo pealei is preferred to Illex illecebrosus, which has greater fluid losses in refrigerated storage and a more rubbery texture when cooked. The pH of cooked mantle increases with the duration of refrigerated storage.




The color of squid is an important commercial atrribute and is determined by chromatophores and their associated structures (radial muscle fibers, axonal innervation, glial cells and sheath cells). Pigment granules are contained within a filamentous compartment within the chromatophore cell and attached to its plasma membrane. Thus, when the chromatophore is flattened by neurally regulated contraction of the radial muscles, color intensity is increased. Loss of color, which is commercially undesirable, is accelerated by prolonged exposure to seawater or meltwater from ice. This causes pigment loss from the filamentous compartment.

References: Cloney and Florey (1968), Lipi_ski (1973), Ampola (1974), Singh and Brown (1980), Otwell and Giddings (1980), Gutworth et al. (1981), Amaria (1982), Stanley and Hultin (1982), Stanley and Smith (1984), Hincks and Stanley (1985).




A major, parallel-fibered muscle of the mammalian throat region composed of ® sternmandibularis + ® sternomastoideus. Both parts originate on the manubrium of the sternum and the first costal cartilage, but separate in their insertions on the head. Once the head is removed from the carcass the only way to separate them is that the sternomandibularis is superficial to the sternomastoideus. In pork the sternocephalicus is undivided.




A thin ribbon of muscle ventral to the trachea in mammals, usually obliterated when the carcass is dressed.




The most superficial part of ® sternocephalicus, the muscle originates on the manubrium of the sternum and first costal cartilage, and inserts on the lower jaw. In pork, the muscle has a long tendon to the mastoid process.




A broad strap of muscle forming the deep part of ® sternocephalicus. It shares it origins on the manubrium and first costal cartilage with ® sternomandibularis but inserts onto the occipital bone and temporal crest of the skull.




Shore crab crab with massive claws, Menippe mercenaria, southern Atlantic of the US, ® Crabs.




Elongated fish with rows of shield-like scutes, Acipenser, ® Osteichthyes.




A large, flat muscle originating on the costal surface of the mammalian scapula and inserting onto the medial tuberosity of the humerus.




A large muscle filling the fossa below the spine of the mammalian scapula, where it originates, and inserting onto the medial tuberosity of the humerus.




In ® North American beef cutting, Swiss steaks are ® round steaks.




A bony fish without scales and an upper jaw forming a sword-like projection, Xiphius, ® Perciformes.




The posterior end of a fish filet is called a tail. Whole tails of pork with skin-on, or subdivided oxtails are both edible byproducts with an appreciable muscle content (® coccygeus).




Bony fish (® Osteichthyes).




A large triangular muscle in the angle between the belly and hind limb of a mammal. It originates from the pelvis and inserts onto the ® fascia lata. The shape of this muscle is changed in cuts of meat when the carcass is suspended by the pelvis rather than the hock.




A thin slip of muscle on the posterior edge of the long head of ® triceps brachii.




In mammals, a thin muscle originating on the scapula and inserting onto the humerus.




In mammals, a small muscle originating on the scapula and inserting onto the humerus. It is parallel with the ® infraspinatus, but below it. It is a large, rounded muscle in pork.




Part of ® flexor digitorum profundus in the hind limb.




® Tibialis cranialis.




A thin, two-headed muscle on the dorso-lateral face of the mammalian tibia, although it is quite large in pork.




The knuckle tip of a ® North American ® hip or ® diamond round of beef (® vastus lateralis, ® vastus medialis, ® vastus intermedius, ® rectus femoris, plus some of ® tensor fascia lata). Pulling the tip from a diamond round starts with a medial cut along the anterior edge of the femur, posterior to the vastus medialis, followed by a lateral separation cutting into the anterior edge of the ® biceps femoris. With medial and lateral separations already cut, the distal face of the patella is freed, allowing the patella and tip to be pulled away from the anterior face of the femur, stripping off the periosteum from the anterior face of the femur. The tip of beef may be split in half longitudinally (from proximal to distal) and used for a ® rolled joint (tip French rolls) or simply sliced as tip London broil. A variety of steaks and kabobs also may be cut from the tip.




In ® North American beef cutting, the top or inside round is from the medial face of the hindlimb and is dominated by ® adductor and ® semimembranosus.




A flatfish, Zeugopterus, ® Pleuronectiformes.




® Iliocostalis.




A large flat muscle, deep in the mammalian abdominal wall. Its widely spread origins include ribs 8 to 13 and, indirectly, the transverse processes of the first five lumbar vertebrae. It inserts to the ® linea alba in the midline of the belly.




® Rectus thoracis.




A flat muscle, inside the mammalian rib cage, dorsal to the sternum.




A relatively thin, but extensive and superficial muscle, from the neck to the back, between the scapulae. In beef, but not in lamb or pork, it is divided into cranial and thoracic parts.




In ® North American beef cutting, a triangle would be the shank + brisket + chuck + plate shown in Original 63.




A large, three-headed muscle filling the triangular space ventral to the scapula and posterior to the humerus in mammals. The lateral head (caput laterale) originates on the humerus and inserts on the lateral surface of the olecranon process of the ulna. The long head (caput longum) originates on the scapula and inserts on the tip of the olecranon process. The middle head (caput mediale) originates on the humerus and inserts on the medial surface of the olecranon process. The long head is the largest (> 3% total carcass muscle weight) while the other two heads are both small.




A muscle group composed of the heads of ® gastrocnemius + the ® soleus muscle.




Trimethlyamine oxide (TMAO) is a post mortem metabolite that affects fish texture by cross-linking myofibrillar proteins, primarily in the cod family (® Gadiformes). Formaldehyde is formed from TMAO by a demethylase. At a high pH, formaldehyde may also be formed non-enzymatically.




A salmonid fish, ® Salmoniformes.




A large mackeral-like fish of the family Thunnidae, ® Perciformes.




A determination of total volatile base nitrogen, including ammonia and other volatile amine compounds, used to assess the freshness of marine myosystems. In squid, similar results may be obtained with a rapid test for ammonia using tetrazolium.


Reference: LeBlanc and Gill (1984).




A large flatfish, ® Pleuronectiformes.




® Extensor carpi ulnaris.




® North American meat cuts.




A medium sized muscle of the mammalian hind limb. It originates around the anterior face of the humerus and inserts onto the patella.




A large muscle of the mammalian hind limb. It originates on the femur and inserts onto the lateral patllar ligament.




A medium sized muscle of the mammalian hind limb. It originates from the femur and inserts laterally on the patella.




Stizostedion vitreum, a major north American sport fish with a conspicuous eye (large and highly reflecting), ® Perciformes.




A whole-body transverse section of a ® shark or ® swordfish, subsequently subdivided into steaks.




In ® North American beef cutting, a wing is the rib + the plate shown in Original 63.




A large north Atlantic bony fish with conspicuous teeth for crushing molluscs, family Anarhichadidae, ® Perciformes.




Limanda ferruginea of the northwest Atlantic, ® Pleuronectiformes.