In the venous system of poultry, the anterior vena cava (Figure 1-12-1) receives blood from the head in the jugulars (Figure 1-12-2). Left and right jugulars are linked by the jugular anastomosis which provides an alternative flow if one side of the neck becomes constricted. The pectorals (Figure 1-12-3), brachials (Figure 1-12-4) and subclavians (Figure 1-12-5) drain the shoulder, wing and pectoral region while the rib region is drained by the internal thoracics (Figure 1-12-6). Poultry have an hepatic portal vein (Figure 1-12-8) that allows blood-borne nutrients from the gut to be processed by the liver before entering the general circulation in the hepatic vein (Figure 1-12-9). The venous return of blood from the leg and pelvic regions is through a complex pattern of veins in and around the kidney. The main components are the renals (Figure 1-12-10), femorals (Figure 1-12-11), sciatics (Figure 1-12-12) and internal iliacs (Figure 1-12-13).