Select the beginning letter of the word that you wish to look up and scroll down the list until you find it.


abiotic - devoid of life; the nonliving components of any environment.

abomasum - the final compartment of the ruminant stomach, also known as the fourth or true stomach of the cow, comparable in function to the simple-stomached animals.

abortion - expulsion of the fetus (or fetuses) by a pregnant female before the normal end of a pregnancy.

acetonemia (ketosis) - a metabolic disease characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies (b-hydoroxybutyric-acid, acetoacetic acid and acetone) in blood or other body tissues.

acclimatization - adjustment to altered environmental conditions.

adaptation - process by which organism becomes adjusted to altered environment.

aflatoxin - toxin produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.

ADF - acid detergent fiber; an indicator of relative digestibility of forages

adipose - fatty

afterbirth - the fetal membranes that attach the fetus to the membranes of the pregnant female and which are normally expelled from the female within 3 to 6 h. after parturition.

agency boards - these boards require the product to be marketed through a board. Therefore, commodity board pays the producer and collects from the buyer to whom the product has been delivered. Some of these boards have the authority to set the price the producer receives.

agribusiness - a combination of the producing operations of a farm, the manufacture and distribution of farm equipment and supplies and the processing, storage and distribution of farm commodities.

agriculture - the science or art of cultivating the soil, producing crops and raising livestock and, in varying degrees, the preparation of these products for man's use and disposal (i.e., marketing). A human activity involving the exploitation of selected animal or plant species to produce things people desire.

AI = artificial insemination - the technique that involves breeding of females without the males being physically present.

albumen - a viscous protein that comprises most of the white of eggs.

alleles - alternative forms of a gene at a specific locus; a location on a chromosome.

all-in all-out systems - a livestock management system in which all animals are introduced into an isolated confinement unit, taken through the appropriate stage of the production cycle and all moved out at the same time. The unit is then cleaned thoroughly and disinfected before a new group comes in.

ambient - that which surrounds.

amino acid - nitrogen containing component of a protein molecule

anabolic - tissue increasing.

analogue - a compound or product that is synthesized or manufactured to be similar to a naturally occurring substance.

anamnestic response - the result of immunological memory. If a previously sensitizing antigen is ever encountered again, antibody production is much quicker and usually in greater amounts than that observed following the initial encounter.

androgen - male sex hormones, associated with secondary sex characteristics.

annual consumption trends - the tabulation of the food products purchased and consumed on yearly basis by a certain population.

ante-mortem - before death.

anthelmintic - compound that kills or expels internal parasites.

antibiotic - chemical compounds from living cells, that inhibit growth or kill microorganisms.

antibody or immunoglobulin - a globulin protein produced by lymphocytes in response to antigenic stimulus. Antibodies bind to antigens and reduce the latter's ability to disrupt body functions.

antigen - a substance, usually a protein molecule or cellular component, that is foreign to the body

and stimulates an immune reaction.

antimicrobial - substances used to inhibit the growth of molds, yeasts or bacteria eg. nitrites,

disinfectants, etc.

antioxidant - compounds that delay or slow the rate of oxidation of autoxidizable substances e.g. BHA, Vitamin E.

antiseptic - compound that kills or inhibits bacterial growth, particularly those agents applied to living tissue.

aquaculture - the production of fish.

atrophy - wasting away or decreasing in size of cells, organs or entire body; due to disuse, disease or severe malnutrition.

autonomic nervous system - portions of the nervous system that regulate cardiac, respiratory, glandular, renal and other activities usually under involuntary (autonomic)# rather than voluntary control.

avian - pertaining to poultry.

backfat - a measurement taken at the loin of a pig and used in calculating the final price of a pork carcass.

backgrounding - feeding cattle on pasture or roughage before finishing.

barrow - a castrated boar.

battery cage - a series of cages in which hens are confined for laying.

biological stimulus - a living organism that is capable of exciting a response in some other organism.

biological clock - mechanism that enables regulation of an animal's physiological or behavioral activities to external cycles or rhythms.

biomagnification - the accumulation/magnification of a substance as it moves through the food


biomass - total weight of organic material present per unit of area or volume.

biotic - living things.

boar - uncastrated male pig

bovine - pertaining to cattle.

boxed beef (pork) - precut portions of beef or pork prepared by the meat processing plant for wholesale delivery.

breakers - eggs produced which, because they are in excess of consumer demand are bought by the Ontario Egg Producers' Marketing Board and sold to the processing industry for use in products like noodles, mayonnaise and cake mixes.

breed - a group of animals descended from common ancestors and possessing similar characteristics.

BCA - breed-class-average, a number used in official Canadian recording systems to compare an individual's production for milk, fat or protein with the national average.

breeder - a male or female kept for reproduction.

broilers - chickens raised for meat rather than egg-laying purposes.

broiler-breeders - mature broiler chickens kept for breeding.

buck - male goat.

bull - male member of the bovine species.

bullock - castrated bull, used for draft

butterfat - the lipid in milk.

calf - a young bovine animal, male or female, under one year of age.

calving - the process of a cow giving birth to a calf.

candled, candling - a method used in grading eggs in which the eggs are passed over a bright light so their contents can be inspected and any cracks or other irregularities detected.

capon - a castrated rooster.

caprine - pertaining to goats.

carcass - the dressed body of a meat animal.

carcinogen - a cancer causing agent.

carnivorous - feeding on animal tissues.

castrate - to remove the gonads of a male animal.

cecum (caecum) - a blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine, prominent in horses and pigs.

cellulose - a prevalent polysaccharide in the fibrous portions of plants, digestible by microbial fermentation in the rumen, cecum or large intestine.

central nervous system - the brain and spinal cord.

cereal - edible grain.

cheddaring - a process that is unique to the production of cheddar cheese. Matted curd is cut into blocks which are turned at 15 minute intervals and piled on one another two or three deep. Allows acid formation and squeezes whey from the curd.

chemical stimulus - a chemical substance capable of exciting a response.

chevon - goat meat.

cholesterol - fat soluble essential nutrient required by the body as a part of all cell membranes and the synthesis of sex and adrenal hormones.

chromosomes - the rod or string like structures which contain the DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes.

climatic (thermal) stimulus - changes in temperature or other weather related factors that cause a response.

clones - all of the offspring produced by budding, parthenogenesis or nuclear transfer. They are presumed to be genetically identical.

cock - male chicken.

cockerel - male chicken less than one year old.

colostrum - milk that is produced by the mother during the first few days after giving birth. This milk contains a high concentration of maternal antibodies to provide offspring with temporary protection against infectious diseases.

comfort zone - the thermoneutral zone or temperature range in which animals maintain their body temperature within the thermal range without expending any extra energy.

commodity price - the price or value of an agricultural product.

concentrate - a high quality, low fiber feedstuff, including cereals and milling by-products.

concentration - reduction of water content and corresponding increase in solids content for a preservative effect on foods. Also decreases product volume and weight.

conception - fertilization or union of oocyte and spermatozoon.

conceptus - product of fertilization, formed through the union of spermatozoon and oocyte, with the potential to develop through embryonic and fetal stages into a viable offspring.

condition - refers to the amount of flesh (body weight), quality of hair coat, and general health of animals.

conduction - the direct movement or transfer of heat from warmer to cooler objects that are in contact with each other.

consumer - one that utilizes economic goods, a buyer of products.

corn silage - a feedstuff consisting of fermented whole corn plants (corn cobs and plant matter).

cost of production formula - (i.e., Ontario Egg Producers' Marketing Board) - the national formula used to determine the farm gate price of one dozen Grade A large eggs by taking into account all the average costs incurred by an egg producer in the production of those eggs.

convection - involves heat exchange through a physical medium such as air or water. A temperature gradient occurs from the warmer body surface through the medium to the surrounding environment.

cow - mature bovine female.

creep - an enclosure into which young (small) animals may enter but larger animals cannot. Any feeders in this area or in farrowing crates or parturition pen that are only accessible to the young are called creep feeders.

crutching - to remove wool from around the perineal and inguinal areas of sheep to prevent soiling and to provide access to teats

cut - to castrate.

depreciation- to lower the price or estimated value, or of less value than usually assigned.

depressed prices - lower prices than average for a commodity usually due to economic depression.

diet - the ingredients or mixture of feeds provided for an animal.

disinfectant - compound that kills or inhibits bacterial growth, particularly applied to agents that are used on inanimate objects.

disposable income - the amount of money remaining to a consumer after deduction of taxes.

distress - excessive stress that causes anxiety, fear or pain.

distributor - one that markets a commodity. It may be as a wholesaler or retailer.

docking - removal of the tail. A common practice in lambs

doe - female goat.

dry - an animal capable of lactating that is no longer producing milk.

Dutch auction - a public sale in which the prices of an object or article is decreased electronically until the first bidder offers to buy. Prices are flashed on the board and the bidder (buyer) pushes a button to indicate his intention to buy.

ecosystem - an interacting community of biotic organisms including their physical environment.ectotherms - animals whose body temperature fluctuates with ambient temperature.

edible oil - an oil product, i.e., corn oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, soybean, peanut, beef, pork and olive oil that is used in the preparation or cooking of food.

egg grading station - a facility licensed by Agriculture Canada where producers bring their eggs to be graded. They must collect the levies on all eggs purchased and remit them to the Ontario Egg Producers' Marketing Board.

elastrator - an instrument for use in stretching a specially made rubber ring, which may be used in dehorning cattle as well as in castrating cattle and sheep.

electronic bidding - using electronic means, a buyer indicates his intention to buy. The buyer therefore does not have to be present at the auction.

embryonic mortality - loss of conceptus in first few weeks or months of gestation.

endosperm - main portion of a cereal kernel (85% by wt) consisting mainly of starch and protein. Recovered and pulverized in the milling process to yield flour.

endotherms - animals that maintain stable body temperatures.

enrichment - addition of specified amounts of selected nutrients in accordance with a standard identity as defined by the Food and Drugs Act.

environment - the sum total of all external conditions affecting well-being and performance.

environmental contaminant - a compound present in soil, water or air.

essential amino acids - amino acids required by animals but not synthesized by them.

estrus - period of time when the female will allow mating.

ET = embryo transfer - technique of harvesting embryos from one female and placing them into other females to complete gestation.

evaporation - heat loss resulting from the latent heat of vaporization which removes heat from a wetted surface.

evisceration - removal of the internal organs; performed after an animal has been slaughtered.

ewe - mature female sheep.

exsanguination - removal of blood; performed after an animal has been slaughtered.

farmer - a person who cultivates the land to grow crops or raise livestock for food production.

farmgate sales - the direct sale of a product from the farmer to the consumer, without going through a marketing board or grocery store.

farrowing - the process of a sow giving birth to piglets.

farrowing crate - a small enclosure for confining a sow and her litter in such a way that the sow may farrow normally, without hazard to the newborn pigs, and which provides them with space of their own on either side of the sow's compartment.

fertile land - land that has good soil composition for the growing of agricultural products, capable ofsustaining abundant plant growth.

fecundity - efficiency of an individual in production of young. Animals that bring forth young frequently, regularly, and, in case of those that bear more than one offspring at a birth, in large numbers, are said to be fecund.

fertility - the ability to produce offspring.

fetus - the unborn young in the later stages of development.

filly - a young female horse.

fingerling - smaller fish, usually applied to trout of about 50 - 100 gm in weight or 16- 20 cm in fork length.

first buyer the first purchase of a commodity by a processor, marketing board, retailer or consumer when the product leaves the farm.

fluctuating market - an uncertain shift up and down of demands for agricultural products, the levels of productions and the costs for those products.

fluid milk - milk used in the manufacture of pasteurized fluid milk and cream.

foal - a young horse

foaling - the act of giving birth to a foal

Food and Drugs Act - consumer oriented legislation passed in 1953 designed to protect Canadians in the use and consumption of food and drugs, cosmetics and medical devices.

food processors - a person or company that slaughters and/or processes agricultural commodities for retail use.

food system - the production, processing, transportation, distribution and preparation of food.

fortification - addition of nutrients to a food to render it a good to superior source of the added nutrients. May include nutrients not normally associated with the food.

free stall - a housing system for dairy cattle in which the barn is constructed with a series of stalls (one per cow) and in which the cow can choose in which stall she wishes to rest.

freshen - a cow giving birth to a calf.

fry - newly hatched fish larva still with its yolk sac attached.

galactopoiesis - stimulating milk production.

gelding - a castrated male horse.

gene - the particular nucleotide sequence of a chromosome segment which influences development of a specific characteristic.

genotype - the specific genetic material on the chromosomes of an individual.

germ - the embryo of a cereal kernel.

gestation - pregnancy.

gestation crate - a stall for housing an individual sow or gilt during pregnancy.

gilt - female pig, prior to first calving.

graded - to assign, through an inspection process, grades which indicate the standard of food quality.

grower fish - fish past the fingerling stage, growing up to market weight.

harvest - the season for gathering in agricultural crops, to gather in a crop by mechanical or manualmeans.

hay - whole forage plants which are cut and dried for animal feed.

haylage - forage ensiled at relatively low moisture content (usually 40 to 50 %).

heat - see estrus.

heifer - female cow, prior to the first calving.

helminths - parasitic worms

herbivorous - feeding on plant tissues.

heterozygosity (heterogeneous) - an organism possessing dissimilar alleles of a particular trait.

heritability - the proportion of total variability among animals due to genotype.

heterosis - see hybrid-vigour.

high moisture grain - cereal grain (most commonly corn) stored in silos at moisture content of 22 to 40%.

homeotherms - animals that maintain a stable body temperature.

homeostasis - maintaining stable internal body conditions.

homogenization - mechanical treatment of milk which breaks large fat globules into many small ones. The resulting small fat globules remain dispersed in the milk and do not migrate to the top of the container to form a cream layer.

homozygosity (homogeneous) - an organism possessing similar genes (alleles) for a trait.

hormone - a chemical messenger secreted by ductless glands in the body and which exerts a profound effect on physiological function. Examples are thyroxin, estrogen, cortisone,, etc.

hybrid-vigor (heterosis) - offspring performance greater than average of parents.

hyperplasia - growth by increase in cell numbers.

hypertrophy - growth by increase in cell size.

immunity - developing resistance to a specific pathogenic microorganism.

implant - an object or material inserted into the body tissue (usually beneath the skin of domesticated animals).

import quota - a limit or restriction on the amount of a product which can be brought into Canada

from another country, imposed to prevent dumping (goods sold in Canada at a price lower than that in the country of origin) or to support a national supply management program.

in-calf - pregnant cow.

index - a value assigned to a pork carcass based on the weight of the carcass and the thickness of the backfat. A high index predicts high yield of meat from the carcass. The price paid to the farmer increases as the index value increases.

industrial milk - milk used in the manufacture of milk products, such as cheese, evaporated and dried milk products, butter, ice cream and yogurt. Also referred to as manufacturing milk.

infection - entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the body.

inflammation - tissue reaction to injury or infection, characterized by heat, redness, swelling and pain.

initial sale - the first sale of a farm product. The initial sale of livestock is usually made to the packer. Fruits and vegetables are sold initially to a processor, a wholesaler or, occasionally, directly to the consumer.

in-lamb - pregnant ewe.

in-pig - pregnant sow.

inputs - products used by the farmer to produce livestock or a crop, i.e., fertilizer, pesticides, seed, animal feed, fuel.

involution - a decline in size or activity of tissues and/or organs. For example, the mammary gland tissues normally involute with advancing lactation. The uterus involutes within a few days or weeks after a female gives birth to young.

ketosis - a metabolic disease (also called acetonemia) characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies (b-hydoroxybutyric-acid, acetoacetic acid and acetone) in blood or other body tissues.

kid - young goat.

kidding - doe giving birth to kid.

lactation - production of milk.

lamb - young sheep.

lambing - a ewe giving birth to a lamb.

layer - a hen which is kept specifically for the production of eggs. Most layers in Ontario are WhiteLeghorns.

legislation - rules or laws passed by Parliament. The Parliament of Ontario has given the Ontario Farm Products Marketing Board power to monitor the action of all the commodity marketingboards in the province.

leucocyte (leukocyte) - usually referring to white blood cells.

levy - a fee paid by each producer for each dozen eggs sold. These fees finance the administration of the Ontario Egg Producers' Marketing Board and the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency, aswell as the promotion of eggs and egg products.

lower critical temperature (LTC) - the temperature at which an animal must begin to expend energy to prevent a decrease in body temperature.

manufacturing milk - see industrial milk.

mare - a sexually mature female horse.

market conditions - the state of the prices paid to farmers for their products. If market conditions are stable for a specific product the, price paid for that product is not changing drastically from day to day.

marketing - selling farm products to the processor, wholesaler or consumer.

marketing board - a group of people elected to represent the producers of a specific product and to devise a plan for selling the product.

marketing plan - a system for selling a specific agricultural product.

marketplace - the buyers of a product and the price they are willing to pay.

market price - the amount that a buyer will pay for a specific product on a given day.

market service charge - as an example the fee paid by the hog farmer to the Ontario Pork Producers' Marketing Board for each hog sold. This pays for the operation of the market yards, selling, settlement, organization, research and product promotion.

market yard - the location to which a farmer ships his hogs when they are ready for market. There are many market yards in Ontario operated by the Ontario Pork Producers' Marketing Board.Most Ontario hogs must be sold through these yards.

mastitis - inflammation of the mammary gland.

metritis - an inflammation of the uterus

milk fever - substantial reduction in plasma calcium which interferes with nerve transmission, causing partial or almost total paralysis occurring at or just giving birth and initiation of lactation.

monogastric - animal with a single compartment stomach.

mycotoxin - toxic compounds, produced by fungi, that contaminate plants.

negotiating board - represents the farms in dealings with the initial buyers of a farm product. The buyers and the board must agree on a minimum price and on the terms of sale (quality and amount of produce).

offshore supplies - quantity of a product that countries outside Canada have produced.

omasum - the third compartment of the ruminant stomach, also known as the third stomach. It has a book-leafed appearance and is the site of water absorption from the digesta.

omnivorous - feeding on both animal and plant tissues.

Ontario Farm Products Marketing Act - given power under the Farm Products Marketing Act to oversee the provisions of the Act, Regulations or any Marketing Plan. Plans reviewed by the Board may apply to one or more farm products or to person engaged in the production and marketing of the regulated product, and may be limited to one or more areas in Ontario.

oocyte - female gamete or egg.

open - not pregnant.

output - quantity of product available for sale to marketplace.

ovary - primary female reproductive organ.

overhead - operating expenses of the farm excluding labour and materials. Taxes, utilities, rent or mortgage payments are overhead expenses.

ovine - pertaining to sheep.

packing plants - a meat processing factory. Cattle, sheep and hogs are shipped to a packing plant where they are slaughtered, inspected by government inspectors and prepared for wholesale or retail distribution.

palatability - refers to the avidity with which an animal selects a component from among several different feed choices.

pale-soft-exudative (PSE) pork - pork that is soft, pale and loose-textured with little or no marbling.

parous - females that have produced young.

parturient paresis - substantial reduction in plasma calcium which interferes with nerve transmission, causing partial or almost total paralysis occurring at or just giving birth and initiation of lactation.

parturition - the act of giving birth to offspring.

pasteurization - a heat process designed to destroy food pathogens and most food spoilage organisms but not to sterilize the product.

pathogenic - able to cause disease

pathological - pertaining to pathology

pathology - structural and functional manifestation of disease

performance test - merit testing of individual animals, usually for rate of weight gain, feed efficiency, milk production, or other performance trait.

phenotype - set of observable characteristics of individuals groups as determined by genotype and environment.

physical stimulus - some abiotic factor capable of producing a response, usually through pressure, friction or some other mechanical force.

pinch - castrate by crushing the spermatic cord.

placenta - the vascular structure by which the fetus is nourished in the uterus.

poikilotherms - animals whose body temperature fluctuates with external environmental temperature.

porcine - pertaining to pigs.

porcine stress syndrome (PSS) - a clinical syndrome characterized by rapid death of pigs after exposure to distress. Contributing factor in pale-soft-exudative (PSE) pork.

post mortem - after death.

postpartum - after birth.

prepartum - before birth.

price-setting board - an elected group of producer representatives. They regulate the selling price for a product and the amount of product which can be sold in Ontario. Sometimes called a Supply Management Board.

probiotic - living organisms used to manipulate fermentation in the rumen.

processor - the person or company that buys the farm-fresh products and prepares them for retail sale so that flavor and nutritional values are preserved. Canning, freezing, pickling and drying are a few processing methods.

production cycle - a sequence beginning with the mating of a mature female and progression through gestation, parturition and subsequent events in the life of both the dam and offspring.

production quota - a limit or restriction on the amount of a specific product that one farmer is allowed to produce for sale. Farmers buy or sell quota, the right to produce specified amount.

progeny - offspring.

progeny test - genetic evaluation based on performance of offspring.

prolificacy (fecundity) - the number of offspring actually produced by a female.

proteinaceous - containing protein.

provincial inspector - a person employed by the provincial government to ensure the wholesomeness of food products.

pullet -a young female chicken

raceway - long, narrow culture ponds with inlets and outlets at opposite ends so fish can grow in streams of controlled velocity.

radiation - the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves passing between two separated objects without any heating of the intervening space between emitter and absorber.

ram - male sheep.

rancidity - the oxidation of fats.

ration - the 24h feed allowance for an animal.

rbST - recombinant bovine somatotropin (see somatotropin).

receivership - a loss of ownership of a business due to inability to pay back borrowed money. The receiver, usually a bank or other financial institution, takes possession of the business and often sells it to recover the money lent to the original owner.

ROP - Record of Performance, an Officially certified measure of production.

rennet - extracted from the fourth stomach of the calf, the enzyme component rennin is used to coagulate milk.

retailer - one who sells directly to the consumer.

reticulum - the second compartment of the ruminant stomach, also known as the second stomach. The lining has a honeycombed appearance to increase the surface are for absorption.

rigor mortis - the permanent contraction of skeletal muscle associated with death.

rooster - male chicken.

roughage - a high fiber feedstuff, usually low in energy and often utilized by ruminants.

rpST - recombinant porcine somatotropin (see somatotropin).

rumen - the first compartment of the ruminant stomach, also known as the first stomach. This is the site of fermentation of the consumed feed by microbes.

rumination - the process of regurgitation and re- chewing food from the rumen.

salmonellosis - illness resulting from infection by salmonella species of bacteria.

senescence - those processes that follow physiological maturity or horticultural maturity and lead todeath of tissue.

serve - to mate.

settle - to become pregnant or to conceive.

ship - transport goods from one location to another by road, rail, air or water.

shipping fever - respiratory disease usually accompanying transport.

silage - forage preserved by fermentation in a silo or under conditions that exclude air.

silo - a structure in which forage is preserved by fermentation under anaerobic conditions and subsequently stored until fed to livestock.

slatted (or slotted) floor - floor composed of solid slats with spaces or slots between to permit excretia to pass through, usually into a pit below.

somatotropin - growth hormone. A compound that can improve the milk yield of a cow or growth and carcass composition of a meat producing animal by repartitioning the nutrients. (i.e., rpST or rbST).

sow - mature porcine female.

SPF - (Specific Pathogen Free) - used to designate a herd or flock that is certified free from certain specific pathogenic organisms.

spermatozoa - male gametes.

stag - male deer or a boar castrated after maturity.

stallion - a sexually mature male horse.

steer - a castrated bull.

sterilization - the complete destruction of microorganisms.

stimulus - something initiating activity, see stress.

stoker - cattle fed lower levels of nutrients for a longer period of time, often on pasture.

stockyards - place where animals from different sources are assembled , usually for sale.

stress - any force or stimuli causing mental or physical response.

superovulation - release of more than the normal number of oocytes from the ovary.

supply management - regulations controlling the amount of a product which a farmer can produce for sale and the method of sale of the product.

swim-up fry - fry that have absorbed their yolk sac and are ready to consume feed.

table eggs - eggs which are sold directly to the consumer, either through retail stores or in restaurants.

teaser - a vasectomized or otherwise altered male that cannot fertilize but may stimulate estrus and, if fitted with an appropriate device, mark estrous females. A cow, sow or mare used for semen collection.

testis - primary male reproductive organ.

thermal (climatic) stress - changes in temperature or other weather related factors that produce a response.

thermoneutral zone - temperature range where animal does not have to use extra energy to conserve or dissipate heat.

thermoregulation - the regulation of body temperature.

tie stall - restraint facility by which animals are held by collars or chains around the neck.

tom - male turkey or cat.

total confinement - raising animals within enclosed buildings for their entire lives.

UHT - Ultra High Temperature heat processing results in a sterile product (140°C for 3-4 seconds).

upper critical temperature (UTC) - the environmental temperature above which an animal must begin to expend energy to prevent an increase in body temperature.

uterus - portion of the female reproductive tract where conceptuses develop prior to birth (womb).

vacuum packaging - the packaging of a product in the absence of oxygen.

virulence - the relative ability of a pathogenic microorganism to cause disease.

weaned - offspring removed from mother.

wether - a castrated ram.

white veal - the meat from a young calf fed primarily a milk based diet.

withdrawal period -the time when a drug must not be administered prior to marketing to insure that no residues remain in the meat or milk.

worms - Parasitic helminths

yearling - an animal between one and two years of age.

zconosis - diseases of animals that can be transmitted to humans.

zone of thermal neutrality - the thermoneutral zone or temperature range in which an animal does not have to use any extra energy to conserve or dissipate heat.

zygote - the product of fertilization, ie. a cell formed from the union of an oocyte and a spermatozoon.