10-234 STRUCTURE OF FARM
Subject matter. This course
provides an introduction to the carcass
structure of cattle, pigs, sheep and poultry. Consideration is given to
the whole range of animal structure from molecular biology to the
grading of the carcass. Animal growth and development are considered in
relation to meat production. The course gives a detailed understanding
of factors such as meat tenderness, adipose development in the carcass,
abnormalities of meat quality such as PSE pork and dark-cutting beef,
development and carcass composition.
Lectures Monday, Wednesday & Friday, 12:30-1:20 ROZH, Room 101
PC Labs, ANNU 102. Tuesday 9:30 & 10:30, Thursday
9:30, 10:30, 2:30 & 3:30 - one hour sessions.
Presentation. It is no
longer possible to offer practical classes in this course. The
same material is now covered using video presentations on personal
computers in the Forshaw computer lab (ANNU 102). Students will
own earphones.Start up a PC by moving the mouse. If it does not
start, make sure it is turned on. Log on using the name
"students". No password is needed. Use Microsoft Explorer. Use
this address is case specific (in other words labs does not exist but
LABS does). Students without earphones may use the projector
which has speakers attached. You can also access this site from
the library - but not anywhere else. The
28 lectures are
also available. Copies may be made for
study only and the material may not be used for any other purpose
except with written permission. When viewing this
material in the library, please remember the contents of this course
may be very disturbing to sensitive individuals.
Exams will be
machine-marked multiple choice.
Midterm 1 - 1 hour - covers first third of
course - about 60 to 70 questions - weighting 25%.
Midterm 2 - 1 hour - covers second
third of course - about 60 to 70 questions - weighting 25%.
Final - 2 hours - covers whole
course - 117 questions - weighting 50%.
Midterms may be early evening
exams to obtain alternate seating in a large room and there will be no
lecture that day (although there may be a lab).
Exams marks will be posted as soon as possible on the internet using
student ID numbers, unless there any objections from the class.
Exam details may be changed by majority vote at first lecture, after
which a unanimous vote will be required for any changes.
The class voted in the first lecture to accept the 25-25-50 weighting
It appears ROZH 101 will allow alternate seating, so the midterms will
be in the regular lecture slot on
1 Monday Feb 6
Midterm 2 Monday March 13
The final is scheduled for April 13 2:30 - 4:30.
encourage students to improve their performance during the course, if
the mark in the final exam is better than the mark from midterms +
final, then the mark from the final will be entered as the final
grade. This does not apply automatically to students who miss a
midterm exam without acceptable documentation for the reason.
YOUR STUDENT ID TO EXAMS SO YOU CAN COPY YOUR STUDENT NUMBER AND NAME
THE MACHINE-MARKED SHEETS. BOTH MUST BE CORRECT AND CONSTANT TO
RECEIVE YOUR MARKS.
Exams questions will be based ENTIRELY
on the lectures (available on the internet) and
labs (available in the Forshaw Lab, 102 ANNU). In all exams there
will be 5 questions from each lecture (1
to 28) and 5 questions from each lab (1 to 11) up to the date of the
ideal way to study for this course would be:
through the reading for each lecture in advance.
2. Come to
the lecture to hear an explanation of the main points and ask as many
questions as possible.
slowly through the reading material looking for facts that can be
reduced to multiple choice questions. Write your own 10 questions
for each lecture and lab on file cards with the answer on the back of
your cards and answer your own questions to review the material just
before the exams.
I know this
method works. It is how I managed to scrape though all the
multiple choice exams I took when I was a graduate student.
Help. Graduate and
undergraduate teaching assistants will be available during many of the
posted hours in the Forshaw lab. Students are welcome to visit the
professor for up to one hour immediately after any lecture (Room 155
ANNU). Please use
e-mail only for special problems. If you miss
a midterm for any allowed reason, it is essential to provide
documentation - such as a copy of a medical certificate, or a personal
letter when you have compassionate grounds, or a letter from a coach or
team captain for university sporting engagements.
reading for each lecture and lab is nearly all
a simplification of material given in "Structure and Development of
Meat Animals and Poultry". This book may be used to find the
refereed publications on which the reading material is derived or to go
beyond the material covered in class.
1. BASIC CONCEPTS OF ANIMAL
From molecules to meat - the range in size and tissue
The adjectives of animal anatomy - essential vocabulary.
Farm animals versus other animals - farm animals in a zoological
2. DOMESTICATION OF FARM
To understand modern cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry - we must know
3. EMBRYOLOGY OF FARM MAMMALS
The earliest events in the animal's life may be the most
This is where biotechnology will have its greatest impact.
4. EMBRYOLOGY OF POULTRY
So different from mammals - it needs its own lecture.
5. SOMITES & LIMB BUDS
Where the development of meat starts.
6. INNERVATION OF MUSCLE
The nervous system controls many aspects of meat production
and meat quality.
How the muscle fibres of meat develop before birth.
8. FIBRE TYPES
Red and white meat in miniature, these fibre types
determine both muscle growth and meat quality.
9. INNERVATION & NEUROTROPHISM
How nerves affect muscle development and meat quality.
These minute organelles within fibres are responsible for
muscle contraction and meat texture.
Muscle contraction - essential for understanding meat
Why meat is usually acidic and how this is essential for meat
13. RIGOR & COLD SHORTENING
The conversion of muscles to meat - and how enthusiastic
refrigeration may ruin meat quality.
14. MEAT COLOUR
What causes it and how we measure it.
15. PSE & DFD
Understanding the science behind pale, watery pork and
16. FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUES
Why some cuts of meat are more tender than others.
17. COOKING MEAT
Why cooking makes some cuts tougher and other cuts more tender.
Essential information - most consumers over-cook their
expensive cuts and make them tough!
18. ADIPOSE TISSUE
Fat development is a major concern in meat animal growth,
finishing, grading and retailing.
19. FATTY ACID METABOLISM
Or how pork chops can taste like sardines if we get it wrong.
20. GROWTH CURVES
The mysteries controlling animal growth.
Changes in animal shape - how we measure the yield of
high-value meat cuts.
22. ENERGY FOR GROWTH
How animals partition their energy between muscle and fat -
and how this affects carcass value.
23. RADIAL GROWTH OF MUSCLE FIBRES
How bulging muscles develop and how this affects meat quality.
24. LONGITUDINAL GROWTH OF MUSCLES
We often forget this - but it makes a major contribution to
An opportunity or a problem? What causes it.
26. BONE GROWTH & CALCIUM METABOLISM
How bones grow and how frame-size is determined.
No milk or eggs shells without calcium!
27. ENDOCRINE CONTROL
Some of the better known hormones controlling animal growth.
28. MEAT GRADING AND CUTTING
Skeletal development, meat and fat colour, and carcass fatness
are used to sort beef carcasses for our customers.
Lean meat yield and carcass weight are used to reward efficient pork
The location of major cuts of beef.
LAB 1: Beef Slaughter and Digestive System
Abattoir methods for beef and the structure of the digestive
LAB 2: Pork Slaughter and Digestive system
Abattoir methods for pork and the structure of the digestive
LAB 3: Sheep & Lamb Slaughter and Meat Inspection
Abattoir methods for lamb and mutton, plus some information on
inspection for parasites.
LAB 4: Poultry Dissection
Dissection and commercial slaughter method for chickens.
LAB 5. Teeth, Brain & Nasal Structure
Main features of the animal's head.
LAB 6: Mammalian Reproductive System
Male and female reproductive systems.
LAB 7: Heart, Lungs & Kidney
Structure and function for circulation, respiration and
LAB 8: Forequarter Skeleton and Muscles
Major muscles and bones of the forelimb, neck and chest.
LAB 9: Hind quarter Skeleton and Muscles
Major muscles and bones of the hindlimb and abdomen.
LAB 10: Poultry Skeleton & Muscles
Skeleton and major muscles of the chicken.
LAB 11: Egg Structure & Grading
Structure and grading of eggs.
LAB 12: Looking at Meat
Videos showing some of the topics covered in lectures. NO EXAM
QUESTIONS FOR THIS LAB.
JAN 9 INTRO & ADMIN - LAB1
JAN 11 LEC1
JAN 13 LEC2
JAN 16 LEC3 - LAB2
JAN 18 LEC4
JAN23 LEC6 - LAB3
JAN30 LEC9 - LAB4
FEB6 MIDTERM 1 on Lec1 to 10 + Labs 1 to 4 = 70 questions - week to
FEB8 DISCUSS EXAM
FEB13 LEC12 - LAB6
FEB27 LEC15 - LAB7
MAR6 LEC18 - LAB8
MAR13 MIDTERM 2 on Lec11 to 19 + Labs 5 to 8 = 65 questions - week to
MAR15 DISCUSS EXAM
MAR20 LEC21 - LAB10
MAR27 LEC24 - LAB11
APR3 LEC27 - LAB12 ( not used for exam)
APR7 REVIEW & course evaluation @ 1 pm
APR13 FINAL (2 hours) Lec1 to 28 + Labs 1 to 11 = 117 questions (change
approved by class vote)